The following post has been submitted by Axil Axil
One consideration that I feel is important to understand is what PT symmetry violation means with respect to CP symmetry violation. We understand that we can produce PT symmetry breaking using optical mechanisms but can PT symmetry violation somehow generate CP violation which is required to produce the decay of the nucleon (protons and neutrons)?
From the various descriptions of symmetry in this article:
Space time (PT) Symmetry is only valid in an open system where energy and/or matter can be gained or lost. In a closed system, PT symmetry does not exist since a closed system can neither gain nor lose energy and/or matter. Because LENR requires CP symmetry breaking and CP symmetry breaking requires PT symmetry breaking, LENR can only occur in an open system.
Open vs. Closed Systems
Systems can be either open or closed. A closed system is one where a quantity or series of quantities cannot enter or leave the system. For example, a system might be closed to energy, meaning energy might not be able to enter or leave the system. A vacuum thermos flask does a really good job of stopping energy from leaving the system to keep your drink warm. So it might make sense to treat it as a closed system – but no system in the real world is ever perfectly closed, so it will only be an approximation.
The opposite of a closed system is an open system. An open system is one where a quantity or series of quantities can enter or leave the system to a significant degree. If you pour your hot drink into a mug instead of a vacuum thermos flask, the heat will escape relatively quickly into its surroundings. So a mug is most certainly an open system! Open systems are a lot more complicated to understand than closed systems, and so scientists prefer to work with closed systems when possible. Science usually stays away from open systems because closed systems makes things much simpler to explain and can be a good starting point before trying to explain open systems, too. Quantum mechanics only deals with closed systems.
Traveling backward in time.
If you make a movie of yourself throwing a ball, and thread the film backwards, it’ll look the same as you catching a ball. So if you want to think of the falling object as being the same as the rising one going backwards in time, the physics will support that statement, but it doesn’t sound all that cool. It is, however, the same thing as antimatter being viewed as going backwards in time.
At the most basic level, the laws of physics are symmetrical: reverse time and they will follow the same route in reverse. Reverse the charge, and things will be attracted where they would have repulsed, and vice versa. Flip them both, and you’ve flipped it twice, so it’s just like you started.
Since a positron is exactly like an electron, only with the opposite charge, then if you (a) replace an electron with a positron, and (b) reverse time, it behaves exactly like an electron. The physicists call this Charge/Parity (CP) symmetry, where “parity” is actually more like looking at things in a mirror rather than flipping time, but it’s the same idea.
Flipping time is another way of looking at flipping left and right: a left-moving object going forwards in time is just like a right-moving object moving backwards.
An electron like a ball sitting in the same spot is a closed system. It cannot change into a positron because it is not moving. The motionless ball is a closed system which cannot experience CP symmetry breaking. A moving ball is an open system where its motion can be deemed to have CP symmetry.
So in an open system that has experienced PT symmetry breaking, LENR occurs because the nucleon undergoes CP symmetry breaking since in this case PT = CP.
In optics, there are special conditions involving optical cavities that can experience PT symmetry breaking. These cavities can reach out magnetically and become entangled with nucleons via their magnetic projections. This phenomenon is known as the chiral magnetic effect(1) — “chiral” means “distinguishing left from right, When PT symmetry is broken in these entangled open systems of optical cavities and nucleons decay via CP symmetry breaking. The energy of the nucleon decay flows one way into the optical cavity.
It seems to me that it is central to the understanding of LENR to appreciate the mechanisms of symmetry breaking with regards to nucleons.
These optical cavities can form is many ways in various types of LENR systems.
Leif Holmlid has applied fast high electric field and sees meson signal. Leif does not need to apply the very high voltage electrostatic field that Rossi is using as a stimulator. Leif has mentioned in one of his experimental write-ups that even the room lighting in the lab could produce muons.
It is my guess that the Bose Einstein condensate nature of the ultra-dense hydrogen (UDH) amplifies the effect of the light that the UDH absorbs. Many UDH particles can form a Bose condensate which further gathers and amplifies the effects of light. This conjecture is supported by Keith Fredericks’ observation. He has seen these entangled UDH based particles in LENR ash.
All the magic is happening in the spin wave the forms the shell of the UDH including superconductivity. UDH is the optimum LENR platform, but other LENR mechanisms can be produced in optical cavities generated on rough metal surfaces and in between nano and micro particles.