# The Process by Which the Proton Decays in LENR (Axil Axil)

The following post has been submitted by Axil Axil

The process by which the proton decays in LENR.

Some esoteric process is causing the proton to decay in LENR. This process is the root source for the production of energy and sub atomic particles in LENR.

Whatever is causing the proton to decay into strange matter is a new unrecognized if not unknown process in physics. This cause is not part of current standard model theory. This makes LENR theory doubly hard and mysterious. Not only do we need to explain the characteristics of LENR, but also LENR thinking gets involved in unrecognized physics that is itself ill-defined and speculative and rooted in solving the hardest and still unexplained issues in physics. As we go through this string of dots, you will get a feel for why LENR theory will not be fully understood for another century.

Gathering the dots together.

Before we attempt to connect the dots relegated to proton decay, we must define them and gather them together.

https://phys.org/news/2017-04-insight-math-million-dollar-problem-riemann.html

Solving the Riemann hypothesis

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_hypothesis

In mathematics, the Riemann hypothesis is a conjecture that the Riemann zeta function has its zeros only at the negative even integers and complex numbers with real part 1/2. It was proposed by Bernhard Riemann, after whom it is named. The name is also used for some closely related analogues, such as the Riemann hypothesis for curves over finite fields.

The Riemann hypothesis implies results about the distribution of prime numbers. Along with suitable generalizations, some mathematicians consider it the most important unresolved problem in pure mathematics.

The complex number system on which this conjecture is based was thought to have no meaning or application to any physical property in reality. But this feeling has turned out to be wrong.

In 1999, it was suggested by David Hilbert and George Pólya that in the nontrivial zeros form a set of real and discrete numbers in the Riemann zeta function are just like the eigenvalues of another function called a differential operator, which is widely used in physics.

This special newly discovered operator has close ties with quantum physics. The special operator in quantum physics is not Parity / Time (PT) symmetric in the complex number domain. If it can be shown that the PT symmetry is broken for the imaginary part of the operator, then it would follow that the eigenvalues are all real numbers, which would finally constitute the long-awaited proof of the Riemann hypothesis.

One of the pivotal dots to be connected in proton decay is Parity / Time (PT) symmetry breaking.

http://www.europhysicsnews.org/articles/epn/pdf/2016/02/epn2016472p17.pdf

PT-symmetric quantum mechanics is an extension of conventional quantum mechanics into the complex domain. (PT symmetry is not in conflict with conventional quantum theory but is merely a complex generalization of it.) PT-symmetric quantum mechanics was originally considered to be an interesting mathematical discovery but with little or no hope of practical application, but beginning in 2007 it became a hot area of experimental physics.

The connection between PT symmetry, LENR, Proton decay is whispering gallery waves.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4830925/

Because of their complex number based quantum behavior, whispering gallery waves (WGW) have mysterious properties that are seen in LENR. In whispering gallery waves, the complex number system relates to the index of refraction of the light contained in WGW type of the optical cavity. When two WGWs are near each other, there is a one way flow of energy between them and a translation of frequencies associated with that transfer. This energy extraction process is unleashed by PT symmetry breaking and the decay that this symmetry breaking produces.

The WGW is the structure that gives form to the Surface Plasmon Polariton. Via the SPP, the energy extraction process whereby the WPW pulls energy out of the proton includes a PT symmetry breaking process. This PT symmetry breaking frees the energy content of the proton as SPP breaks the PT symmetry that keeps the protons or neutrons from decaying.

The color force and proton stability is based on maintaining CPT stability. Here are some old posts that explain this behavior of the color force:

and

Doesn’t theory and experiment have to conform?

http://www.e-catworld.com/2015/05/19/my-opinion-regarding-rossicook-reaction-theory-axil-axil/
This ash looks the same as the fuel…physically unchanged but isotopically different.
No neutrons were detected so the active subatomic particle supporting the Ni58 to Ni62 transmutation must be protons from the gas outside the particle. [I am happy with that.]

These protons change themselves into neutron after they enter the Ni58 nucleus. [How about they combine with a virtual pion at the point of entry to the nucleus? uud → uud+(d anti u) = udd. Incoming proton combines with pi- pion to form neutron. Virtual pi+ becomes real, is expelled and decays.]

Yes, this is impossible to believe, [Why?] If it weren’t for logic and the results of Lugano experiment, what other answer could there be?

• Axil Axil

I believe that particle creation does account for much of the energy catalyzed by LENR. This process is called Hadronization.

QUOTE:

“In particle physics, hadronization (or hadronisation) is the process of the formation of hadrons out of quarks and gluons. This occurs after high-energy collisions in a particle collider in which quarks or gluons are created. Due to colour confinement, these cannot exist individually. In the Standard Model they combine with quarks and antiquarks spontaneously created from the vacuum to form hadrons. The QCD (Quantum Chromodynamics) of the hadronization process are not yet fully understood, but are modeled and parameterized in a number of phenomenological studies, including the Lund string model and in various long-range QCD approximation schemes.”

Holmlid has seen muons produced by activated Ultra dense hydrogen even when the UDH is removed long term from any stimulation by light. The production of these muon decreases over time until the UDH is re energizes through exposure to light. Such pre activated UDH has a shelf life of months. It appears that this UDH can maintain their stored energy content at high efficiency for an extended period of time.

It might be true? Insert a proton(uud) into the nucleus and convert to a neutron(udd) using a virtual [1:] PI- pion(d anti u).

uud → uud+(d anti u) = udd
so need (u anti d) (Pi+) as by-product out

The PI- plus proton forms a virtual neutron that is electrically neutral and enters the nucleus to become real. Simultaneously, the now real Pi+ is expelled by Coulomb repulsion.

The end result is that the Nickel nucleus gains a neutron. The expelled PI+ decays to a muon+muon neutrino. The Nickel nucleus mass defect releases energy and powers the E-cat.

[1:] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pion
the charged pions π+ and π− decaying with a mean lifetime of 26 nanoseconds (2.6×10−8seconds)
Charged pions most often decay into muons and muon neutrinos
The exchange of virtual pions .. provides an explanation for the residual strong force between nucleons.

• Axil Axil

https://phys.org/news/2017-04-theoretical-approach-non-equilibrium-phase-transitions.html

Study offers new theoretical approach to describing non-equilibrium phase transitions

A new and elegant take on Quantum Mechanics has arrived on the scene just in time to help explain how LENR works. With this new tool, dynamic systems are understood to include phase transitions at the extreme limits of their solution sets.

Dynamic operators that have been only discovered a few years ago are now widely used in quantum optics which is at the heart of the LENR reaction.

Phase transitions are hot in physics now central to the understanding of the Higgs field, optics with changing indices of refraction, and superconductivity all demonstrate phase transitions and the famous Mexican hat upside down potential that only using the complex number set can properly explain.

In this figure, think of the red optical resonators as the Surface Plasmon Polariton (SPP) with a whispering gallery wave structure. The blue toroids are the protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
On the experimental setup, coupled optical resonators (paired red and blue toroids on little pedestals) are PT symmetry systems. When they are tuned through a “phase transition” light, instead of moving through them in both directions, can only travel one way.

When a phase transition occurs, when a proton decays, its energy of decay in the form of a Gamma ray can only be absorbed by the SPP

We learn from this model that quantum theories need not obey the conventional mathematical condition of Hermiticity so long as they obey the physical geometric condition of space-time-reflection symmetry (PT symmetry).

PT symmetry challenges a standard convention in physics—the widely held belief that a quantum Hamiltonian must be Hermitian. And, because PT symmetry is a weaker condition than Hermiticity, there are infinitely many Hamiltonians that are PT symmetric but non-Hermitian; we can now study new kinds of quantum theories that would have been rejected in the past as being unphysical. Moreover, PT-symmetric systems exhibit a feature that Hermitian systems cannot; as indicated in the energy levels become complex when energy from outside the system changes in the system.

The transition from real to complex energies is a key feature of PT-symmetric systems and it is called the PT phase transition. At this transition the system goes from a state of physical equilibrium (called a state of unbroken PT symmetry) to nonequilibrium (broken PT symmetry).

LENR occurs when PT symmetry is broken in an optical micro cavity.

• Fedir Mykhaylov

At Axil’s unimaginable flight of thought. But the decay of a proton apparently requires enormous energy-where does it come from?

• Leonard Weinstein

Axial,
If what you say is true, what are ideal test conditions to obtain the energy, and what chemicals would be best?

• Axil Axil

A QuarkX replication system using a high temperature capillary tube at least 2 centimeters long. An a gram of Nickel aluminum hydride fuel that is at least enriched in lithium 7. Two nickel electrodes placed at the ends of the capakart tube. An adjustable DC high voltage source (50 to100 kilovolts ) connected to the nickel electrode.

• Zephir

/* Some esoteric process is causing the proton to decay in LENR */

It doesn’t and no experimental evidence for it exists. End of story, you may return to your homes, nothing to see is here.

• Axil Axil

According to the experimental results produced by Holmlid and now more recently by Rossi, mesons and pions are the byproducts of the LENR reaction. These byproducts come from the disintegration of sub atomic particles. Holmlid also has identified kaons which are composed of at least one strange quark. These Kaons and the strange matter that they contain can only come from the decay of the proton.

http://inspirehep.net/record/1278566/files/diagrams-ek.png

The exploding titanium foil experiments of Leonid Urutskoev show fission of uranium which can only have been produced by muons in the absence of detectable neutrons.

Low-energy nuclear reactions and the leptonic monopole
Georges Lochak*, Leonid Urutskoev**

http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/LochakGlowenergyn.pdf

The oneway entangled transfer of energy from the proton to the SPP keeps the LENR reaction products from becoming excited and radioactive. The detection of muons as a reaction product of stored catalyst when stimulated by UV light points to the production of mesons by hadronization.

Any fusion products detected in these types of meson centric experiments are a result of muon catalyzed fusion. The evidence of transmutation products produced by fission without the detection of neutrons indicates muon production and resultant muon catalyzed fission.

There are also laser irradiation of gold nanoparticles in a water solution where the fission of thorium and uranium were generated.

Initiation of nuclear reactions under laser irradiation of Au nanoparticles in
the presence of Thorium aqua-ions
A.V. Simakin and G.A. Shafeev

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0906/0906.4268.pdf

Initiation of nuclear reactions under laser irradiation of Au nanoparticles in the aqueous solution of Uranium salt
A.V. Simakin, G.A. Shafeev
Dec 01 2009 physics.gen-ph nucl-ex arXiv:0911.5495v1

• Valeriy Tarasov

Agreed, and I can say that in h-space theory the proton fission reaction is a main LEN reaction in all LEN devices. About this I was talking several years ago on Rossi website, publishing a paper about h-space theory (and on amazon). E-cat is simply more efficient as it has additional Li fission reaction.

• Billy Jackson

You know axil.. you whip out enough of these things .. you can Rolodex your way to the answer when someone finally hits the solution…. just spin that sucker right around whip out one of these articles and wham see that’s what you said right here! 🙂

(all kidding aside .. we do appreciate the effort!) 🙂

• Axil Axil

It may not look like it, but all the posts that I have authored are all connected and comprise a complete description of a theory of LENR that replaces the coulomb barrier penetration theory that Pons and Fleischmann invented back in the day. That fusion based theory was disruptive to understanding and acceptance of LENR as real. More than that, the LENR fusion theory also kept LENR from being reproduced in the Lab since the fusion theory of LENR was nonsense.

Nuclear theory—the theory of how protons and neutrons interact—explains how Fusion works and generates many expectations about what we should observe when fusion actually happens.

According to nuclear theory, deuterium atoms fuse and release energy in a two-step process:

1) The two deuterium atoms unite to form a single atom of helium-4 (helium with two protons and two neutrons).

2) This helium-4 atom has a lot of energy—so much energy that it is unstable.

The unstable atom quickly discharges some of this energy in one of three ways: releasing a neutron, proton, or gamma ray (a type of electromagnetic radiation) . In LENR experimentations, these fusion signs were not seen, so professional science discounted both LENR and LENR theory as pseudo-science.
If professional science were to accept LENR, another nuclear based reaction was responsible for LENR and the experimental results that were seen in LENR had to support that nuclear reaction.
It turns out that this nuclear reaction is the decay of the proton. The decay of the proton must have happened just after the Big Bang for the universe to exist, so why does it not happen today? Professional sciences are running some very expenses experiments to try to find out are the proton is decaying. LENR theory explains why the proton decayed after the big bang and why it is stable today but not when the proton is acted on in a in the very unusual conditions set up in a LENR experiment.

• psi2u2

Thank you for the extremely lucid explanation, which even I and Billy Jackson can partly understand.

• Axil Axil

The fusion-centric thinking that predominated LENR theory in the early 1990s must been superseded by more recent experimental insights in the LENR process. The most prominent is the transmutation results that come from many LENR systems: wide scale transmutation of many elements including the fission of many, i.e the Ni62 transmutation and the Li7 to Li6 transformation. These reactions cannot be explained by fusion alone. Then there are the Mesons seen by Rossi and Holmlid. The only way that these mesons can form is from the decay of subatomic particles. Fusion as a prime mover in LENR should be disregarded.

• Billy Jackson

you are so far beyond my understanding and education that i am just gonna sit here and color with my crayons and occasionally lick the window till you say something in English 😛

• LION

Hi Billy Jackson, in my book that is 12 out of 10 for sense of humour, thanks for making me laugh today.

• LION

Hi Axil, your statement seems a little hasty to me, since virtual particles can become real particles through the agency of the correct frequency of light, it seems to me that most people won’t accept that the vacuum can be engineered because they won’t accept that the QV ( ether) has a real existence but is simply a useful mathematical tool and way of explaining things. For myself I am certain it has a REAL OBJECTIVE existence, and that proof of that lies in the realm of LENR. My respect as always, I applaud your HUGE contribution to stimulating posts and debate and sharing of information. THANKS.

• Axil Axil

There is a big difference between virtual particles, pseudo particles, and quasiparticles. Virtual particles are produced by the inherent instability of the EMF background that permeates the universe. Virtual particles don’t required condensed matter to form. On the other hand, pseudo and quasiparticles are produced by the interaction between matter and forces as mediated by the actions of quantum mechanics. Instantons are pseudo particles and SPPs are quasiparticles.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quasiparticle

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_quasiparticles

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instanton

• Bruce Williams

Hullo Axil, I think I have tried to read your many contributions to this site going back over quite a time now. I confess I understand only a small amount of what you write, however I am amazed at the time and energy which you devote to what is a great passion for all of us who follow the LENR saga, thank you for your time and please do not be discouraged by a few mealy-mouthed critics.

• LION

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