Why the SunCell is a LENR System (Axil Axil)

The following post has been submitted by Axil Axil

As the Brilliant Light Power SunCell R&D moves forward over the coming months, certain hard-to-understand problems will develop in that effort that will show that the SunCell is really a LENR based system. As a foreshadowing of these development problems, I will make a prediction about how the SunCell works as a LENR system which, if realized, will disprove the Hydrino theory as a central mover in the way the SunCell functions. This production and its expansion will demonstrate how LENR works in the plasma state as a process centered on transition metal nanowire production as a condensate from the vapor state.

As background to develop and explain this issue, the boiling point of silver is 2435 K (2162 °C, 3924 °F). If the high temperature of the plasma inside the SunCell keeps the silver vapor from condensing into nanoparticles than the dusty plasma based LENR reaction will stop. The SunCell will flicker around the boiling point of silver and the plasma temperature will stabilize and hover at the 2162C boiling point of silver.

R. Mills has shown two SunCell distinct architectures that have demonstrated two separate capiblities, first: high power density, second: long duration and self-sustained ignition.

There is a major differences between the full power SunCell unit that has used a tungsten electrode and the lower temperature long reaction endurance unit used to show self-sustained mode.

In the full power test, Mills used tungsten whose boiling point is 6203 K (5930 °C, 10,706 °F). There is no temperature limitation problem with nanoparticle formation here. In the low power endurance test, the temperature of the plasma produced was far below the full power test because the test reactor containment structure was stainless steel.

I predict that the Mills SunCell will not work at full power where the temperature needs to reach 3000C using the silver liquid electrodes because the plasma at that temperature requirement will get far too hot for silver condensation. The temperature cap is 2162 °C using silver, its vaporization temperature.

As a Goldilocks solution, Mills might try a possible high temperature replacement for silver: Titanium, boiling point 3560 K (3287 °C, 5949 °F).

I also believe that the shape of the nanoparticle is important. The nanoparticle in dusty plasma might need to be reformed into nanowires. Silver can produce nanowires and so can titanium.

Titanium has been shown the capability to do this dusty plasma LENR reaction function nicely in the exploding foil experiments described here:

Low-energy nuclear reactions and the leptonic monopole
Georges Lochak, Leonid Urutskoev

lenr-canr.org/acrobat/LochakGlowenergyn.pdf

These exploding foil experiments vaporize titanium and then produce LENR reactions such as fusion, fission and transmutation. This type of experiment provides support from my belief that the SunCell is really based on the LENR reaction rather than this hydrino myth.

The number exploding wire experiments done in Russia has been extensive, so much so that a computer program has been written based on these experimental results that predict what the transmutation results will be based on the type of material used in the exploding wire or foil.

There are other SunCell like LENR experiments that have demonstrated solid transmutation results. Proton 21 is one.

The bottom line, the SunCell is just a variant of these exploding foil dusty plasma based experiments.

Axil Axil

  • cashmemorz

    Rossi said that he has prepared for the contingency that if something happens to him. By 2019 Rossi will very likely be too old to continue anything past that date on his own. If it happens by 2029, it might be that contingency will take effect. Whoever takes over will either have to be superclever, like Rossi, or give the whole show away as to what was really happening. Unfortunatelly I will probably be similarly disabled, as wil many of us older bloggers, by then and won’t appreciate what is going on. Now here is my dribble bib.

  • sam
  • sam
  • Axil Axil

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_iS44Y3dbPA

    The ‘Wool’ of metal threads produced in Parkhomov’s experiment seen in Bob Greenyer’s MFMP youtube video look similar to the nanowire dimers in the recent Arxiv preprint –
    “One-dimensional plasmonic hotspots located between silver nanowire dimers…” (page 19, Fig. 1)
    https://arxiv.org/abs/1701.00970
    If Parkhomov’s results are correct, perhaps the enhanced formation of plasmonic “hotspots” could be worth considering.

  • tlp

    Adjusting hydrogen supply can be fast and the system may react quite fast to it. Mills has indicated that there may not be very much possibilities to adjust the power: SSM requires certain minimum temperature and then the maximum temp is also limited. And there is no need to stop SSM as that extra power can be dumbed, when the fuel is free.

  • doug marker

    Axil,
    Thanks for an entertaining and challenging POV regarding Mills Suncell. As often, you provide challenging perspectives.

    For my part, what I see in Mills work is that unlike most LENR scientists including Andrea Rossi, Mills developed an interesting and elegant theory, *then* in exploring his theories set about trying to create energy. After several unproductive lines of investigation (that worked but would not scale in any economic fashion), Mills explored the arcing used now in his Suncell.

    Andrea Rossi, offered a LENR device claimed to gererate over unity heat but still cannot offer a theory that is accepted by anyone that matters. The closest any LENR developer has in this regard has to be the theories developed by Widom & Larsen. The really down side of Andrea Rossi’s years of efforts is that every single partnership he has entered into has collapsed in acrimony and most recently outright legal scrapping. What will change in 2017 ? – little IMHO.

    So, getting back to why I lean towards Mills having it right, is that he started with an elegant theory.

    But, again your comments are welcomed as an interesting alternative.

    DSM

  • Andreas Moraitis

    To invert the direction of speculation: how about „LENR“ without the „N“? What if

    – occasionally observed ‚neutrons’ are not neutrons but something else (hydrinos, other form of ‚dense’ atomic hydrogen…);
    – apparent fusion/transmutation products are actually a new class of compounds (hydrino based, Santilli magnecules, superatoms…)?

    Any opinions?

    • Axil Axil

      Your speculation is well founded. IMHO, the fundamental particle that drives the LENR reaction is a newly discovered one; it is a quasiparticle; a form of ball lightning, but on the microscale. It is called the polariton and is a child of quantum mechanics.

      http://physics.aps.org/articles/v9/154
      Matter-Light Condensates Reach Thermal Equilibrium

      Science: nanoplasmonics, is being developed to understand how light and matter can combine into a new form of particle that has the qualities of both light and matter: specifically a the photon and an electron hybrid that can exist for a very long time.

      Polaritons must be pumped continuously with energy to stay together, but when a positive feedback loop sets in to extract its nuclear energy from matter, it can feed itself and reach a steady state of activity. We in the study of LENR call this steady state mode of energy pumping action, self sustain mode.

      Polaritons can combine together and form balls of light as reported by Fabiani: Rossi’s electrical engineer.

      For example Fulvio Fabiani states:

      “We have it all filmed, which still cannot be disclosed. We have photographs of creatures that emit pure light that have completely melted the reactor down, all in a very quiet way. You just turn off the stimuli system and the reaction is switched off. It’s impressive.”

      In this revelation, Fabiani explains how the polariton works in LENR. It produces a special type of magnetism that breaks down matter into its more basic subatomic parts and at the same time, it sucks excess nuclear binding energy out of the LENR reaction that it catalyzes using an amplified weak force reation to keep itself fed and to put some of that extracted energy away as a form of EMF storage. This method of nuclear energy storage can retain huge amount of power that could sustain the polariton wor weeks.

      Holmlid says that his reaction can stay alive for weeks but when feed fluorescent room light or wea laser light, the polaritons can come back to life and generate new muons in a invigorated LERN reaction.

      Polaritons require a nanocavity to form. There are many different ways that this can happen. In the SunCell, silver and hydrogen based nanowires produce the reflective surfaces needed for the polariton to form.

      Nanowires are superconductive and will not allow EMF to penetrate into its surface. This reflective surface provides one mirror that the polaritons need to come into existence, This should against EMF is call the meissner effect.

      The other mirror is produced by the isolating layer of hydrogen the surround the nanowire and keeps electrons and photons confined for long enough for them to mix into a polariton.

  • Zephir
  • Fedir Mykhaylov

    Perhaps you’re right, Mr. Aksil. The process is far more deep then the hedrino formation and is it ends with a formation of neutron that are very low energy. Neutrons with ultra low energys are absorbed by metal nuclei. Some of the neutrons will experience beta decay in the field of Coulomb’s metal nuclei forces. As a result accelerated protons appear and thay interact with matter. There may be a whole complex of nuclear reactions. A sort of a chimeric character of a “dog, duck, hedgehog”

    • Axil Axil

      Agreed, and the type of nuclear reaction that predominate in any given system is a function of the power of the LENR reaction. I beleive that LENR is a amplified weak force reaction where matter decays into other types of subatomic particles..

      In very low power reactions that might occur in biological transmutation, the low powered production and internuclear transfer of neutrons and/or protons may be the only kind of sub atomic particles that are involved. Possible no fusion ans/or fission might occur in biological cells. The bacterial would not tolerate the amount of energy that fusion and fission reactions would generate inside the cell.

      But there are certain types of bacteria that are the exceptions. These cells use gamma radiation as an energy source(food) and can live inside nuclear fuel and nuclear waste.

      In higher powered LENR reactions as occurs in kilowatt and megawatt power ranges, protons and neutrons might decay into mesons, pions, muons and electrons. Those sub atomic particles would then produce secondary reactions including fission and fusion.

  • Axil Axil

    Keith Fredericks

    has done a extensive study of this “strange” radiation and has produced papers on his results.

    See
    http://restframe.com/mm/pages/papers/

    I have a theory on how this particle form if you are interested.

  • Axil Axil

    How do nanoparticles form in the SunCell plasma ball?

    http://www.eng.uc.edu/~beaucag/Classes/Nanopowders/2003ReviewofAerosolSynthesisSwei….pdf

    Vapor-phase synthesis of nanoparticles
    Mark T. Swihart

    Supersaturation, oxygen and inert gas are all part of the Vapor-phase synthesis process.

    Supersaturation

    “A common example of a supersaturated solution is the carbonated beverage. These have much larger amounts of carbon dioxide dissolved than would be possible in normal conditions. The gas is kept dissolved by increased pressure, but immediately begins forming bubbles of released gas where the solution is in contact with its container once that pressure is released through opening the container.

    Supersaturated solutions of common substances such as sugar are also possible. Water can dissolve more sugar at higher temperatures, so cooling a carefully prepared solution of fully concentrated sugar water from high temperatures results in a supersaturated solution of sugar. A string or other object placed in the solution gives the sugar crystals a place to come out of solution, and any object thus inserted slowly develops a coating of solid sugar. Faster and more dramatic reactions are possible with different solutes.”

    A pressure drop is important.

    If there is a pressure gradient in the plasma reaction process that is occurring in the teacup sided volume in the Mills reaction, as the supersaturated vapor leaves that reaction volume, then the metallic nanoparticles will nucleate in the lower pressure region of the plasma ball even if the temperature remains the same.

    A roiling vortex like circulation in the plasma ball will draw the nanoparticles back into the reaction volume where the reaction will continue indefinitely.

  • Bob Greenyer

    Hi Max, This is interesting, thankyou for sharing, I have read through part of the linked material and am preparing rough translations of the body of the links.

    Basically though, this is a textbook example of George Ohsawa reactions.

  • Bob Greenyer

    What did they die of?

  • Axil Axil

    https://youtu.be/JC5MM7sSQR4

    axil wrote:”Can anybody explain how this positive feedback loop works? What keeps that feedback mechanism constant and regulated?”

    At 1:03 of the video, R Mills states that the self sustain mode of plasma ignition is caused by the sufficient amount of silver vapor pressure. After warm up to that silver vapor pressure level, self sustain mode is self perpetuating. No additional input power is required in SSM from then on.

    Mills says that the power to the electrodes is turned off. The positive feedback loop involves the silver vapor and… heat. Heat energy produces what the silver vapor needs to keep the reaction going.

  • Bob Greenyer

    @axilaxil:disqus

    The “magnetically” activated Tau neutrino theory is interesting. The data supports the “Least action theory” in that the outcomes naturally tend to ash that has a neutral energy release balance. It maybe that to get heat, light or electricity – the aim would be to disrupt this apparent trend to a stable nuclei spread.

    I liked particularly the bioactivity research presented in citation 18, where they tested the “strange radiation” effect on mice.

    http://aflb.ensmp.fr/AFLB-314/aflb314m514.pdf

    This supports the claims of apparatus that creates dusty plasma and deep electro magnetic states have bio activity.

  • Job001

    On the other hand, the Mills hydrino conjecture provides a neat one stop explaination with sophisticated research, science, and spectroscopic confirmation. The Mills energy production and recovery using UV radiation conversion into visible and efficient recovery with sophisticated 2000 sun solar cells is clever!

    ALL LENR explanations and Dark matter and currently contorted physics theories are explained, in part. Mills GUTCP is one tough contender, a dark horse underdog hated by the main gang but undefeated as a new physics hypothesis.

    Personally, I like the horse race and support no one position, preferring pragmatic probabilistic science handicapping to simple cheerleading. Handicap odds: Mills/LENR = 2 to 1.

  • blanco69

    ‘Nano Cluster Plasmoids’ sounds great but I’m not smart enough to determine if it makes some form of scientific sense. I could, however, suggest that both Rossi and Mills have adopted 2 very different processes. One uses smoke and the other uses mirrors.

  • piper

    For a 15 cm outer diameter spherical black-body to achieve a stable operating temperature of 3000 °K, and sustain a radiant energy transfer to a much colder surrounding surface of about 340 °K, the temperature of a much smaller primary radiant energy source within the the sphere, must be higher. This teacup sized reaction plasma supplying the energy is often mentioned as being at least 5600 °K.

  • Axil Axil

    E Mills states that to get the correct black body spectrum in the carbon dome which drives his COTS photovoltaic cells, a temperature of 3500C is required. This is where his operating temperature requirement comes from.

    • Dr. Mike

      Axil Axil,
      The Dec 6th BLP video states that the initial system will be operated at 3000K, but eventually they will raise the temperature to 3500K to double the power when the 3-layer CPV cells become available. The 3-layer cells should have the highest efficiency if they are designed for a specific black body temperature. (With the junctions in series, each layer needs to generate the same amount of current.)
      Dr. Mike

  • Ophelia Rump

    Let’s be honest, in your mind the credibility of the SunCell appears to rest on the theory which makes it possible being incorrect, and it being a LENR system.

    That would mean a failed theory accidentally stumbled into a successful LENR solution which we know is not an easy thing to do.

    Add to that the notion that there are currently two theoretically revolutionary energy sources being close to ready for production and credulity is strained past the breaking point.

    Listen to your yourself, you do not believe in this thing.

    • Axil Axil

      The Rossi QuarkX system is the same nanoparticle based system except the nanoparticle is Lithium: boiling point 1603 K ​(1330 °C, ​2426 °F)

      Rossi solved the meltdown problem because a too hot Quark reactor would vaporize the lithium and stop the LENR reaction.

  • tlp

    Axil, why it is so difficult to you to admit that GUTCP theory explains fully SunCell operation? There is no LENR happening, try to find it in other places.

    • Axil Axil

      Because there are almost identically configured LENR systems that have been demonstrated which show transmutation fusion and fission.

      For example

      HIGH-ENERGETIC METAL NANO-CLUSTER PLASMOID AND
      ITS SOFT X-RADIATION
      Klimov A., Grigorenko A., Efimov A., Sidorenko M.,Soloviev A., Tolkunov B., Evstigneev N., Ryabkov O

      http://www.newinflow.ru/pdf/Klimov_Poster.pdf

      and a longer version

      JOURNAL OF CONDENSED
      MATTER NUCLEAR SCIENCE
      Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

      http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/BiberianJPjcondensedr.pdf
      Page 155

  • bfast

    Interesting analysis, Axil Axil. However, I do wonder if you have anywhere near enough information upon which to make your analysis.

    I have always been of the mind that one of the two inventors, Rossi and Dr. Mills, has a totally wrong theory. It makes sense to me that an alternative power solution be found, it doesn’t make sense that two truly separate technologies would arise simultaneously. I think that Rossi’s theory is less, well, radical than Dr. Mills’ theory. I therefore conjecture to agree with you, albeit as my quali is rather low, it is only this analysis that draws me to this conclusion. (And the fact that physics would be totally wrong about: all quantum mechanics, and the big bang seems a little far fetched.)

    • Dr. Mike

      bfast,
      Your conclusion that the Mills theory is not consistent with quantum mechanics may not be correct. You may want to read the article “Relativity and Electron Deep Orbits of the Hydrogen Atom” by J. L. Paillet and A. Meulenberg, which can be found on line.
      Dr. Mike

      • Pekka Janhunen

        Mills’ “fractional hydrogen” has ~0.5keV energies, while the “deep Dirac level” compact hydrogen theories have ~0.5keV energies i.e. comparable to the electron rest mass. Thus they are two different beasts, energy scales different by factor of thousand.

        Maybe Mills’ observational claims of “fractional hydrogen” spectra are just spectra of normal ionised hydrogen-like atoms (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen-like_atom ). For example a doubly ionised lithium is a hydrogen-like atom (i.e. single-electron atom, or rather ion) whose energy levels are 9 times larger than hydrogen levels so it looks like “fractional hydrogen” with n=1/3. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rydberg_formula .

        • Pekka Janhunen

          sorry, typo: on second line should be 0.5MeV instead of 0.5keV.

        • Stephen

          I wonder if the effect on the electron orbitals of an atom with slow transiting proton could also account for the spectra?

          i admit its a bit of a long shot though.

        • Dr. Mike

          You are correct- the energy differences are on the order of 500-1000. An explanation is needed for Mills’ observed spectra and where is the energy coming from in his SunCell if not from hydrinos.