Rossi on Going Small: Thousands of 20 Watt QuarkX Reactors to Make Up Large Plants

Andrea Rossi has been answering a number of new questions about the QuarkX reactor on the Journal of Nuclear Physics since he revealed that each reactor is now smaller than ever in terms of power output. The reason for its reduction to 20W from 100W is, according to Rossi, for safety reasons. He said:

“Safety is first. Making modules of 20 W of power, it is much easier to control them. Combining them, we can reach any power rate we want in small space. Like Quarks…

Gerard McEk asked some questions; here is the Q&A:

What worries me is that because of this development you may need to go again through a new full test cycle again for getting the 5 sigma on all aspects.
1. Is that true? no
2. Does each QuarkX need to be separately controlled? no
3. Does such a small unit not automatically mean more control complexity for big clusters? no, the contrary is true
4. The ability to recharge seems more difficult for such tiny units, is it still possible? yes, by sostitution on the site of the Customers and recharge in our robotized line
5. If so, do you think of replaceable and recyclable units? yes
6. I assume that using the QuarkX in a jet engine is now one of your favorite applications, am I right? C.B.N.* ["Crystal Ball Needed]
7. When do you think you are able to produce a large cluster of QuarkX’s? soon

Bill Conley asked whether making so many small reactors would mean that refuling them prohibitively expensive or at least make maintenance significantly more expensive and if the QuarkXs were now considered disposable or swappable. Rossi’s response:

No, the maintainance is easy. The modules will be replaced and recharged in our factory. Imagine to substitute fuses in a control panel.

So what Rossi seems to be describing here are reactors that are easily swappable in and out of a plant as if you were changing fuses — nevertheless we’re talking about 50,000 fuses (if the plant was 1MW) which would be highly labor intensive and complicated if you were to install/replace each one individually (imagine how many you could drop or lose inside the plant!). So I would think that they must be planning for a way to have multiple QuarkX’s on some kind of circuit board that could be easily snapped in and out. If, as Rossi indicated above, each QuarkX does not need a separate control system this may be doable. It’s also interesting to me that he says that having many small QuarkX reactors require less control complexity than for large systems.

Rossi says that they will ‘soon’ be able to produce large clusters of QuarkX’s, which would require the manufacturing facility would need to be in place. On the JONP Nils Fryklund asked about this:

Are the plans on a factory together with ABB-robots in Sweden postponed due to security problems with Quark X? AR: No.

So plans for manufacturing seem to be going ahead, however he doesn’t say whether the factory is ready yet.

  • sam

    Dear Andrea:
    Can you describe better the QuarkX shape? Now we know the module has a power of 20 W and that the power density is 2W/cc, but we do not know the dimensions, I mean the shape.
    Cheers,
    Roy

    Andrea Rossi
    October 10, 2016 at 6:58 AM
    Roy:
    It is a cylinder. Precise description will be given when the QuarkX will be officially presented.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    Iliana
    October 9, 2016 at 3:16 PM
    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    How close are you today to the famous 5 Sigma (F8)?
    Godspeed,
    Iliana

    Andrea Rossi
    October 10, 2016 at 7:01 AM
    Iliana:
    Very.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • sam

    October 8, 2016 at 5:46 PM
    Mr Rossi:
    For the 1 MW plants working with the QuarkX, will you continue to use standard containers, or you will make something with more cure for the design ?
    Cheers,
    L.

    Andrea Rossi
    October 9, 2016 at 7:08 AM
    L.:
    Point taken. I know our design is not fascinating, nor inspiring. We have to work on it, but the enormous advantage of the containers is their easy transportability. You are right, though.
    We are working also on this side of the product, see for example the design proposed in the artistic representation of the industrial plants on our website http://www.leonardocorporation.com
    Thank you for raising the issue, I understand it is a very important one.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • sam

    Peter
    October 7, 2016 at 3:00 PM
    Dear Andrea Rossi:
    About the 50,000 QuarkX necessary to make a 1 MW plant: you are right, assembling fifty thousand small pieces is a work that a robotized system can make in one day.
    Cheers,
    Peter

    Translate
    Andrea Rossi
    October 7, 2016 at 3:49 PM
    Peter:
    Yes, it is possible.
    warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • sam

    tyler toffoli
    October 5, 2016 at 7:03 PM
    Mr Andrea Rossi,
    The fact that the QuarkX module has a power of 20 W opens enormous sectors of market also in the households. Am I correct?
    Cheers
    T.F.

    Andrea Rossi
    October 6, 2016 at 7:29 AM
    Tyler Toffoli:
    Yes. Both in industrial and household applications.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    bartolo
    October 5, 2016 at 6:13 PM
    Dear Andrea
    Is now the QuarkX stable, without any risk ?
    Thank you,
    Bartolo

    Translate
    Andrea Rossi
    October 6, 2016 at 7:29 AM
    Bartolo:
    Yes. F8.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    Richard
    October 5, 2016 at 7:38 PM
    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Is it confirmed that the basic module of the QuarkX will be rated 20 W ? How difficult will it be to assemble 50 thousand modules to make a 1 MW plant ?

    Andrea Rossi
    October 6, 2016 at 7:27 AM
    Richard:
    Yes, it is confirmed. With the robot line of ABB to assemble 50,000 parts will be matter of days. Think to the Universe: it is made by Quarks ( in seven days, but that was a manufacturing line quite difficult to replicate ).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    Patrick
    October 6, 2016 at 2:50 AM
    Mr Andrea Rossi:
    After today and tomorrow we will be able to say that the QuarkX is “hurricane proof”, correct ?
    Cheers,
    Patrick

    Andrea Rossi
    October 6, 2016 at 7:24 AM
    Patrick:
    Good idea! ( He,he,he )
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Rene

    A patent rarely discloses the optimal design. It discloses enough of a design to permit the claims to hold. So, the patent that describes what is likely the quark shows diagrams of a nice prototype.
    In practice, a production version of hundreds or thousands of e-cats would look very different. Gone are the individual handcrafted little tubes made from concentric layers of heater/inducer, electrical insulation, fuel, more insulation, wall. Instead, I can imagine the thing being constructed out of steel plate (or some higher temp material), with a honeycomb placement of little reactor dimples CNC drilled (mechanically or laser). Then the layers are dropped in as films including the little dollops of fuel. A top plate pinches everything closed. The top plate is also machined to have little spikes that punch through into the fuel (the fuel is the heater/inducer) when the plates are pressed tightly and locked down with insulated machine screws. Apply fancy pulsed power to the two plates, and now you have a myriad little reactors purring along. When the fuel in some threshold number of those reactors gets exhausted, take the assembly back, separate the plates, toss the intermediate layers, recycle the fuel, done.
    Yes, there are a few materials science issues to deal with, and too the magic formula for LENR 🙂

  • Rossi Fan

    Thousands? I’ll settle for one:)

  • Alan DeAngelis
  • artefact

    On JONP:

    “Andrea Rossi October 4, 2016 at 12:12 PM
    Keith Ketelsen:
    We are working very well and now we are really close to Sigma 5.
    Warm Regards,A.R.”

    and

    “Tom Conover October 4, 2016 at 11:34 AM
    Dear Andrea,
    3 questions, please:
    1) I am thinking that your 5 sigma results relate to condensed matter physics.
    Am I incorrect in this observation?
    2) I think it likely (> 89%) that you will achieve 5 sigma in the next 90 days.
    Am I possibly correct in this observation?
    3) I think it possible that Dr. Cook would publish after 5 sigma. Likely?
    Thank you for your answers! You are very kind.

    …”

    “Andrea Rossi October 4, 2016 at 12:16 PM
    Tom Conover:
    1- no
    2- yes
    3- ask him
    Thank you for the links!
    Warm Regards, A.R.”

  • Robyn Wyrick

    Sorry, but with respect, I don’t think he “has to” do anything. That you or I think well or ill of him has no real consequence. Let’s just say one of two scenarios are happening: (1) Rossi has the goods, and it is complicated and taking time, or (2) he doesn’t. In either scenario, our impatience is meaningless to him.

    I don’t happen to think he is a con man, but as far as I know, my general faith in him affects him not one iota.

  • Axil Axil

    According to Holmlid, muons are not detectable as described in your reference.

  • sam

    Comments from Lenr Forum

    axil
    User Avatar
    Verified User
    22 hours ago−1
    zorud wrote:
    It is so rediculous…most of the guys on ECW seem still to take every single detail that AR reveals, for real….No one tries to ask himself or AR, why Dottore Rossi doesn’t flood the market with devices from his robotized lines since years…a new product or improvement every other year, instead of a roll out of a device that works! I really do hope that there are more seriuos scientists who will be able to a) produce excess heat and b) find a theory that fits…

    The Rossi reaction has a intractable problem that is impossible to solve. It disables electrical equipment at long distances from the reaction and this effect cannot be shielded. Rossi keeps the reactor small to keep the downsides of the reaction small so he can work with it. He may be able to sneak through the certification process if the reactor is small, but when the reactor grows large, and its ability to disrupt electricity grows large, things get unworkable.

    LENR will be treated as any nuclear reactor and regulated heavily. Huge Rossi reactors will end up being sited far from people and difficult to maintain. In these facts, Rossi is misleading people. No basement sited reactors can work. Rossi thinks he can solve these problems with his reactors but he cannot.
    Paradigmnoia
    User Avatar
    Professional
    22 hours ago+1
    If electronics are disabled within proximity of the reactors, why are the control units bolted directly to the side of the plywood boxes containing the reactors in the Plant?
    Malcolm Lear likes this.
    axil
    User Avatar
    Verified User
    22 hours ago
    Insight from ME356 as follows:

    Emissions (RF, electrons and UV) during the test were so strong that my control circuit was absolutely crazy even that it was 3 meters away – it is unusable.

    I am very sure that this behavior is real as it happened to me too. I use analog pressure meter which cannot be damaged.

    I am sure that the noise is extremely high as it affects computers and USB peripherals 2 meters away.
    Everything is contactless.

    Also I have checked that SiC element is producing so intense EM field, that my IR meter (that is reading data from TC) was unstable at 800W and more.

    eros is sencitive to this interference and has had many medical issues with this as has Me356. The worst: eros has spent a month in the hospital to clear his head.

  • Frank Acland

    Thank you, that was my mistake!

  • Stephen

    Very Nice idea I like smart and simple solutions like this it’s a sort of a thermal fuse Or thermal trip switch I guess?

    Even if A controled switch down is required somehow a physical effect like this could trigger the process.

  • LilyLover

    A few dead pixels on a 4k TV is OK; big broken CRT is not.
    So, Dr. Rossi’s “teacher” must have questioned the need for 100 W and posited that the 20 W with 2yr replacement cycle is better. Any one QuarkX becomes defective, it’ll be out of the circuit without needing immediate attention and perfection of performance. Intelligently managed unreliability is better than never perfected reliability!! I can see the confidence boost in Dr. Rossi’s tone even as he goes down to 20 W!!
    Marvellous!! Help that he sought!!!

  • pelgrim108

    OT: MFMP has begon uploading videos from ICCF20 to youtube.

    https://www.youtube.com/user/FleischmannMemorial

  • Omega Z

    Wrong, The contract provides IH the rights under the current contract to current and future technology improvements had they honored the contract.

  • radvar

    I believe that is the one hundred million dollar question. Court date next Spring, last I heard.

  • Bruce Williams

    Sorry,this has little to do with the current topic, but a few days ago I read SOMEWHERE on this site an excellent summary of the history of CF/LENR.I thought that I had book-marked it, but hadn’t. Can someone please help me to recover it?
    Thanks in advance.

  • Axil Axil

    Posts from Alan Smith about activation energy from old reactors as follows:

    An interesting thought. Here is another (purely anecdotal) observation, which may be relevant, to go with it. People (sensible people, too) who have handled ‘used’ Rossi ceramic reactors (pre-IH) have said that reactors which have run for a long period exhibit a strange ‘static charge’ phenomenon which persists for long periods (weeks) which is quite inexplicable. The surface when touched has that ‘vibrating and slightly crackling’ feel you get from being around things like Van der Graaf machines.

    I was told this buzzy sensation could only be felt on cold and disconnected reactors that had been run on long tests (for unknown values of ‘long’ I’m afraid,) and only on those that successfully produced the XSH signal. That’s about all I know. Fascinating bit of scuttlebutt though.

    • Pekka Janhunen

      If a ceramic happens to be a good enough insulator, it can retain electric polarisation for weeks. At least some capacitors can do that. How it received such charging during reactor operation is a question with multiple possible answers. Perhaps by inductive electric fields, perhaps by X-rays, perhaps something else.

  • Axil Axil

    The Rossi reaction has a intractable problem that is impossible to solve. It disables electrical equipment at long distances from the reaction and this effect cannot be shielded. Rossi keeps the reactor small to keep the downsides of the reaction small so he can work with it. He may be able to sneak through the certification process if the reactor is small, but when the reactor grows large, and its ability to disrupt electricity grows large, things get unworkable.

    LENR will be treated as any nuclear reactor and regulated heavily. Huge Rossi reactors will end up being sited far from people and difficult to maintain. In these facts, Rossi is misleading people. No basement sited reactors can work. Rossi thinks he can solve these problems with his reactors but he cannot.

    Insights about this issue from famous LENR developer, ME356 as follows:

    Emissions (RF, electrons and UV) during the test were so strong that my control circuit was absolutely crazy even that it was 3 meters away – it is unusable.

    I am very sure that this behavior is real as it happened to me too. I use analog pressure meter which cannot be damaged.

    I am sure that the noise is extremely high as it affects computers and USB peripherals 2 meters away.
    Everything is contactless.

    Also I have checked that SiC element is producing so intense EM field, that my IR meter (that is reading data from TC) was unstable at 800W and more.

    Another LENR develop, eros is sensitive to this electrical interference and has had many medical issues with this as has Me356. The worst: eros has spent a month in the hospital to clear his head.

    • Job001

      RF, electrons, and UV are all easily shielded, so, come off the conclusion about impossible engineering and certification.

      • Axil Axil

        eros showed that the radiation was not RF because he measured it with a RF meter and found low levels only. He tried to shield it, and he could not. The radiation are muons which are highly penetrating and difficult to detect.

        eros used the Holmlid detector technique to detect the muons by covering his GM meter with a copper cap. He can now detect these muons after they are slowed down by heavily lead and iron shielding but they get through the shielding.

        The spent fuel is also producing muons and can only be killed by using acid.

        A post from eros as follows:

        Btw reactor device keeps one piece(he only keeps the fuel from a old reactor) . It is stable to use for weeks. But near environment (at least observer brains) doesn’t keep stable few minutes more.

        One hard/too weird I destroyed with sulfuric acid after it had bend timespace -20min. (the fuel affects his clocks) After I need month+ to hospital get back this world. So I can say only that it is dangerous to brains.

        BTW, DGT could not shield this interference. They used a double faraday shield and also mu metal with no results.

        • Pekka Janhunen

          What prevents them from being (a low level of) neutrons, in eros’ case? Cu can pick up activation from neutrons and has a 5 min or so half-life which is in agreement with what he saw. And neutrons do not care much about high-Z shieldings.

          • Axil Axil

            eros made a vigorous effort to detect the full range of possible radiation emissions including neutrons. No radiation showed up, but nevertheless the effects of electric interference was still happening.

        • Job001

          For now I’ll choose not to accept your theory, it’s too much like “I’m from the government and I’m here to help you(you little guys are prohibited, outlawed, and criminalized)”.

          • Axil Axil

            Your attitude is why Me356 went dark…to protect you from yourself.

            • psi2u2

              Yes we know that all the real researchers have to protect themselves from e-cat world readers. They emit dangerous muons.

    • Guru Khalsa

      I always wondered why when Rossi first started experimenting with the quark he always mentioned he had three of them. When the test was made for Hydrofusion to get them interested in quark tech he mentioned he brought three of them to the test site. Every time I have heard someone ask Rossi if he had running quarks he would say had had 3 of them running. Coincidence?

      Real quarks come in different flavors. For instance a proton is made up of three quarks, 2 UP quarks and 1 DOWN quark and the GLUONS that bind the forces, or so I am told.

      The cat chases the mouse to me says there is a polarity, we have an electric current and we have an electromagnetic field. But what happens when we start combining those fields together I don’t know but it seems to me we are far removed from days of the original copper tube Ecat prototype. I don’t know Toto but something tells me we are not in Kansas anymore.

      • Obvious

        Sort of like real quarks, if you get ahold of one, the other ones disappear.
        Like the 3 Lugano reactors.
        Like the 300 reactors supposedly being tested in mid 2011

        • Omega Z

          The early days low temp 10KW modules were each made up of 3 reactors.

          300 reactors being tested would assemble into 100 10KW mods or a 1MW shipping container.

          Even tho everyone talked about 10KW reactors, I’m not certain there ever was such a beast but in fact a 10KW module made of of 3 reactors.

          Note that even the Hot cats- Both the flanged cylinders and the ceramic dog bone reactors were 3.5KW each. Not 10KW as everyone seemed to believe.

          • Obvious

            I was just looking at the old reports by Stirling. I see he mentioned there was 100 units each of 3 reactors in the 1MW Plant (2011). I counted 2 walls of 28 units, plus whatever was on top from his photos (note that the top units were covered in blue plywood in Ferrara, then moved inside the new red Plant, and possibly modified again, to become the Tigers in Doral).

            Stirling later reports 52 reactors making up the 1MW Plant.

            The Tigers are reported by Murray (IH exhibit 5) to have 16 reactors each. So these would be roughly 16 kW each reactors in each Tiger.

  • Billy Jackson

    Its not the size that matters but how you use it…. 😛

  • Zephir

    Such a miniaturization makes absolutely no problem at the industrial scale. The coal plant may look like large giant, but at the very bottom we have myriads of narrow pipes, which maintain the whole thermal flux.

    http://www.mpjainco.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Stainless-Steel-Tube-Coil-Heat-Exchanger.jpg

  • Valeriy Tarasov

    I think the Rossi’ s logic of no separate control for each QuarkX can mean the following. QuarkX is simply electricity switch on/off device, like a light bulb, having in addition a feedback temperature relay. To combine a such unit in bigger device should not be a problem.

    • Axil Axil

      It sounds to me like Rossi is using the activator reactor which is electrically controlled from a control box and many cat reactors that are not connected to anything, The activator(mouse) drives the Cat reactors. Rossi may be driving many cat reactors with a single mouse activator.

      • Valeriy Tarasov

        I see this as you need anyway each QuarkX to be connected to the electricity and a feedback temperature relay can switch Off the electricity if the temperature is above the maximum limit and switch On for the minimum. At least for me such a system means no complicated control for each QuarkX. Of course all this possible if QuarkX is designed to be switchable by a simple supply of electricity.

        • Axil Axil

          As defined in the patent, the activator is connected by a single wire that carries a high voltage potential of between 50 and 100 kilovolts, and no current at all.

          The activator is like an engine in a train. There is just one engine by a hundred rail cars that the engine pulls. The connection between the activator and the slave reactors is quantum mechanical: entanglement. no wires needed.

  • Job001

    Apparently labor is not an issue because of robot substitution/replacement of new modules. It would also make sense that the electrical connections are automatic like plug in batteries.

  • US_Citizen71

    Larger surface area to power ratio. Easier cooling, preventing meltdowns.

  • bfast

    Yea know, when the world’s eyes are opened to LENR, gazillions of research will go into it. Other configurations will be developed. In the mean time this quarkx looks like it will be very suitable both as a proof case and as a power source for very many applications.

    As it is likely to not need recharging for a year of full-time use, even disposal is likely to be a reasonable option. (Of course recycle is better, or using the exhautic metals created by the LENR process may be even better yet.)

  • radvar

    (Off Topic)
    Water scarcity. On the order of 30 billion life years of mitigatable human suffering caused by suppressing LENR, and a bigger potential cause of resource wars than oil.
    Thanks, Big Science, for keeping your eyes pinned to the microscopes and spreadsheets.
    Any time now, Dr. Rossi.

    http://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/scarcity.shtml

    http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/water-gen-atmospheric-water-generator_us_57ee34c0e4b0c2407cdd41dc?section=&

    • SG

      I believe Arthur C. Clarke when he said that the suppression of cold fusion is “perhaps one of the greatest scandals in the history of science.”

      • sam

        Arthur might be right.
        But I wonder if it is because so
        many highly educated people
        do not believe LENR is
        possible that Goverments do
        not make a move on it.

        • Pekka Janhunen

          One challenge in funding LENR research publicly is that scientific study is only possible if the phenomenon is repeatable, but on the other hand as soon as that happens, the commercial prospect easily dwarfs the science aspect. Once LENR is repeatable and can be unambiguously measured by calorimetry (i.e., once it’s amenable to scientific study), it’s also already well on its way to commercial exploitation. Not there yet, but on its way.

  • Ophelia Rump

    When they are reacting it must be similar to a nuclear pile. One big heap will run away.
    When you space the reaction out with rods they are easier to damp. You might also do radiation containment not on the individual rod but upon the pile, so that a few can be used to initiate the others more readily

  • Andrew

    When Rossi talks about the quarkx I envision a matrix of small 3/8ths tubes mounted on a backplate maybe in an 8 x 8 config. A complete unit of 1280w total.

    Instead of having a central reactor with fins as heat syncs he has made smaller reactors with a larger overall surface area.

    With a the smaller 8 x 8 modules he can now set some to be in direct contact with the water to boil and some above to superheat the steam. He no longer needs to try and find a balance between reactor temp, water flow and steam superheating on one reactor. He can now control both functions independently and have greater control over each function as well. Moreover being a tubular design he can now mass produce the reactor housings very easily and also allows easy assembly into whatever size power system you want.

    Hopefully we can see something soon.

  • Bob

    So what about the (3) 1mw plants purchased by the satisfied customer of the 1 year test? These should have been nearing completion by now. Rossi himself posted that the 1MW plant was ready for commercialization and that was supposed to start this past spring after the 1 year test was done.

    Will the sale of these (3) units now be dropped and forgotten about now in favor of this new design?

    If so, this will be the 4th sale of 1mw plants that have dissolved into the mist. Each a different customer, never to be heard from again? 🙁

    • wpj

      You are mixing the hot-cats (Q-X) with the warm-cats (1 MW plant). It has been stated that those plants are still being made for the client and the two arms are running in parallel.

      Maybe someone should ask him about the progress of these plants.

      • Bernie Koppenhofer

        Rossi has already stated they probably will be complete sometime in 2017.

    • f sedei

      Very good question. The new Quark-X is a really big issue. I have a feeling it may be an underlying cause of the Rossi-IH court case. The Q-X appears to have been undergoing development during the testing phase of 1MW plant, maybe without the knowledge of IH. The fact that the Q-X has the perceived ability to quickly make the 1MW plant obsolete may have truly upset the IH high command. Using IH equipment and space for experimentation, especially in secrecy, could have exacerbated mistrust and deception between parties. Just a thought (one of many).

      • Omega Z

        Rossi built the Quarks at his facilities. He did monitor the Quark X in operation at the site of the 1MW test, but IH personnel were present and IH was aware. It was no secret and if nothing else, Rossi blogged about it on JONP. Also, had IH honored the contract, they would have been given the right to use the Quark X technology within the original contract parameters.

        IH/Darden just don’t want to pay up. While most can’t wrap their head around this fact (Because the techniology is worth Billion$), It is actually quite common for Venture Capitalist to try to skip out on honoring their oblications. Regardless the amount owed or the value of the technology.

  • Gerard McEk

    Some interesting aspects of AR in his reply:
    1. Because sigma 5 is not jeopardized these tiny QX’s were part of the test as Pekka Jahunen already assumed.
    2. The complexity to control is reduced so this would lead to the assumption that 1 control-QuarkX controls multiple sub-QX’s and I assume that due to the fact that they are more stable, the control of such a unit is also easier.
    3. We all know one of the (other than safety) reasons to construct a QX was to allow a better power-control of the heat output (AR has confirmed that). This would be needed to have full control of a QX-jet. I am sure AR is heading to that and that he doesn’t need a crystal ball to know that this might be a perfect application. Maybe the (US) military are involved…., now secrecy may start to play a more prominent role.

    • Rob

      The main reason for having 20 W small units seems to be that the power density of the fuel is so high that only very small quantities of fuel in one concentration spot can get rid of the heat produced. In other words: increased heat exchange by many smaller units. In such case the control is mainly determined by coolant flow rather that trying to control the transmutation process.

  • Jimr

    I believe the 20w unit will be a “proof of theory” product. I know he says he can assemble 50,000 together for 1m ,but I feel that would be impractical. The 20w units are most likely more reliable but still will have a failure rate. A big difference in 20w and 250.000w

    • Thomas Kaminski

      A typical fission fuel rod has about 200 2cmX1cm (dia) uranium pellets. These are then assembled into about 200 tube bundles to place in the reactor. That is about 40,000 pellets per bundle. I think is quite feasible to assemble 50,000 tiny “rods” to make up the 1MW assembly. You use a structured technique where individual elements are placed into sub-assemblies, then those are integrated into assemblies which are then bundled to make a system.

      One interesting question, however, is how you stimulate the devices. I think it would be impractical to have electrical heaters in each device. You would need to have some other method of stimulating the reaction. Perhaps it is a “cat and mouse” structure where some portion are electrically heated and those then heat the passive ones.

      • sam

        I was wondering how they would get the fire going also.
        Thanks for giving it a shot Thomas.

      • Warthog

        Glad you posted this and saved me the trouble.

        I also concur with your notion that there is a grid in which some are “mice” but most are “cats”. This might also tie in with Axil’s hypothesis that what the “mouse” actually does is create muons (or some equivalent particle) in high numbers, and those are what makes the “cats” howl.

      • Timar

        Another analogy to envision the future would be to compare the QuarkX to a transistor. Early computers were made out of thousands of individual transistors on a circuit board. Today we have Integrated Circuits containing millions of transistors on a single
        square millimeter.

      • sam

        John C Evans
        October 3, 2016 at 9:26 AM
        Mr Rossi

        Thinking about the thermal peak problem and the clusters of small units:
        1. Is the thermal peak issue your primary safety and operational concern?
        2. Does the peak affect the entire cluster?
        3. Does the peak affect only one unit or a few units in the cluster?
        4. If only a few or one unit, can those be isolated or shut down as peaks occur?
        5. If they can be isolated can they then be returned to operation without an act of physical maintenance?
        6. If only a few or one unit, can the remainder of the cluster maintain safe operation?
        7. If the entire cluster is affected can the unit be returned to operation without an act of physical maintenance?

        Thank You

        John C Evans

        Andrea Rossi
        October 3, 2016 at 9:35 AM
        John C. Evans:
        1 no
        2 no
        3 one
        4 yes
        5 depends on the problem
        6 yes
        7 n.a.
        Warm Regards
        A.R.

    • Ophelia Rump

      So you assemble 51,000 together and run at the regulated output. Or you run 50,000 at 20.05 watts or whatever is required.

    • Jimr

      I am assuming that each 20w unit will need at least a wire attached. I may be wrong, possibly could be attached to a printed circuit board, however with all the heat
      I don’ t know if that is possible. In series is another possibiliy. Many more questions than answers