Reflections on the Tohoku University LENR Experiments

I have been re-reading the report about the Tohoku University LENR experiment and have found it includes information that might provide clues about why LENR may or may not occur in some experiments.

Just to recap:

1. The Tohoku experiment uses a system with two palladium electrodes inside a cylindrical chamber. A nickel mesh is on the inside of the chamber walls surrounding the electrodes.

2. The experimenters prepare or “activate” the electrodes by first applying high voltage to them, which causes a glow discharge. Following this the the electrodes are baked up to 200C.

3. The effect of this preparation or activation is that a film of nanoscale nickel and palladium particles covers the electrodes.

4. The chamber is then evacuated and heated with resistors, and then deuterium gas is added at high pressure — and then excess heat is produced.

To me, the interesting thing is that when the preparation or activation process did not occur (i.e. no high voltage, and no baking of the electrodes), there was no excess heat observed after the introduction of the deuterium gas and resistor heating. So the key to the LENR process in this experiment seems to be the requirement for the film of nanoscale nickel and palladium particles on the electrodes.

The question that naturally arises then, is: what is it about this film that makes the LENR occur? Many have suggested that it is the geometry of the surface of the metals that is critical to achieve success. In this case, the experimenters seem to have figured out a method for nanoscale surface preparation that works.

Another thing that I find interesting in this report is what the experimenters plan on doing next. Hideki Yoshino, president of Clean Planet, the company financing the CMNS Department at Tohoku University, states in the report that they want to: “increase heat generation, and how to use inexpensive materials such as nickel with light hydrogen, instead of palladium and deuterium.” The report states that Clean Planet is now focusing on energy generation, since it is more lucrative than radiation remediation.

Much of the interest in LENR in recent years, particularly since the introduction of Rossi’s E-Cat, has been in the nickel-hydrogen reaction because the elements are so abundant and inexpensive compared to palladium and deuterium. It looks like this is the direction that Clean Planet will be moving towards. This could lead to greater developments in understanding and advancing the Ni-H field.

The upcoming ICCF20 conference will be held at the CMNS Department at Tohoku University which will raise the department’s profile even more. To have a dedicated LENR research facility reporting successful experimental results, and hosting an international LENR conference could really put them on the map, and provide more credibility and interest in LENR as a whole.

  • http://lenrftw.net LENR G

    If bachcole wants to give me his champagne, I’m not going to stop him.

  • sam
    • http://lenrftw.net LENR G

      Time to put the champagne on ice.

      • sam

        Maybe it’s this chap.
        http://youtu.be/yF5dHdjaO3E

      • sam

        Engineer 48 has not been on ECW for a while.
        Do you think he might be working on replication.

        • http://lenrftw.net LENR G

          Yes, very possible. Interesting thought.

          We do know he was designing a reactor so that fits. But he’s not someone with any history in the field nor any publications so it’s almost certainly not him to which BG refers.

          I’m sure he’s doing something and will fill us in soon on his latest adventures.

    • sam

      From Lenr forum
      Alan Smith
      User Avatar
      Super-Moderator
      An hour ago
      gameover wrote:
      To me this would not make any sense in light of a planned successful demonstration from Holmlid et al.

      If you expect this stuff to make sense on a regular basis, you are interested in the wrong kind of research.
      Mark Underwood
      User Avatar
      Forum-Beginner
      Just back from a trip to the future, saw the experiment, and the scientist in question is …
      2 minutes ago
      Melvin Miles. The ash is simple helium. I liked this experiment because it went back to basics. Even the now politically incorrect moniker ‘cold fusion’ got back the respect it deserved, but lost, decades ago. It was truly a Pons and Fleischmann memorial project. 😛

  • georgehants

    Morning to Bob Greenyer if watching.
    Bob do you have any update to your hoped for 100% demonstration, sorry to bother you but your announcement has me excited and waiting hopefully.

  • LION

    I think this is one of the most important videos Bob has made to date:

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_92zc-rDXGw

    the wetted substance is actually (jelly like) and essentially is the sauce, Incredible energy density..

    Made a lot of it myself, late 1990s, extraordinary substance, remember our reality construct with which we are daily familiar:
    Solid physical
    Liquid physical
    Gaseous Physical
    Plasma-a bridging half way state
    Above which are 4 planes of Etheric matter, of which most humans are not aware, but they exist none the less, if you like to stick science sounding names on things you could call it Dark Energy, essentially ever finer Gas( think Russian Dolls)
    If you do work, i.e. go for an energetic run, you Exude, i.e. SWEAT, well metals under the right circumstances can be made to SWEAT too.
    If after all that running and sweating you want to Chill, you could try this:

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4IFlaG45xM8

    Well done Bob., I hope ICCF20 goes well for you.

  • Zephir

    Maybe the nickel atoms implanted beneath the palladium surface are the key here. The palladium provides necessary hydrogen/deuterium oversaturation – but there were always reports that the actual LENR runs at the foreign atoms (Ru, Rh) embedded into the palladium lattice. At any case, the economically viable LENR should be able to run without surplus of palladium.

    • Zephir

      BTW The fact that the cold fusion runs reliably but with very low intensity indicates, it’s constrained to a narrow surface layer of implanted ions. The paladium LENR is generally way more intensive bulk effect. We have to test layers of palladium-nickel alloy at higher thickness.

  • RLittle

    Hi Mr Acland,
    How are you? You raise some great points. I like this report from Tohoku Univ.

    I respond to your statements : “To me, the interesting thing is that when the preparation or activation process did not occur (i.e. no high voltage, and no baking of the electrodes), there was no excess heat observed after the introduction of the deuterium gas and resistor heating. So the key to the LENR process in this experiment seems to be the requirement for the film of nanoscale nickel and palladium particles on the electrodes.
    The question that naturally arises then, is: what is it about this film that makes the LENR occur? ”

    In 2000, RBL explained what it is about such film of metal with nanoparticles that makes LENR reactions occur and accelerates and makes more reproducible. In 2002 at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, RBL did experiment with 100% success of using 3d and 4d metals Cu and Ag with strong magnetic fields and the formation of Cu and Ag nanoparticles on Ag and Cu electrodes and RBL gave experimental evidence of transmutations during operation and excess heat as the transmutations alter resistivity and after long operation the electrodes overheat and melt. In such publications, RBL explicitly notes the use of nanopalladium and nano iron, Cobalt of nickel would be better but for expedience he had to work with Ag and Cu at the time. And the experiment used very high voltage and arcing and plasma between electrodes with etched and corroded the electrodes to form Cu and Ag ions with catalytic by proton of deionized water renucleated Cu and Ag nanoparticles with protons in a codeposition manner as thes nanoparticles settle back on the Cu and Ag electrodes in very strong magnetic field so the Cu and Ag manifest magnetic domains under magnetization for the acceleration of this unconventional nuclear reaction (LENR) and 100% reproducibility of heat and transmutations.

    I do not mean to be selfish but only honest and sincere as I note that I previously in 2000 noted the import of nanoparticles for LENR and I reduced the use of nano-particles down to practice in patent and publication. Before I commented that Cannon’s 1990s patent did not do such as Cannon only noted ‘fine particles’ which in the early 90s was synonymous to micron particles and such absorbing effects of micro-particles. BUT in 2000 RBL did reduce to practice with explicit not of nano-size and the effect of single domain within such nanoparticle of ferrometals (iron, cobalt and nickel).

    Please take no offense as this was in 2002, and not being selfish if I could get credit for such as I truly earned it then it would really help me as I struggle.

    Sir I ask you to read the articles and please not that I take nothing from Rossi, I celebrate his success in experimenting and industry. I simply would like fair credit for theory that I previously had many years ago. In all righteousness I fully earned and deserve such credit.

    If would Sir use can access a published manuscript from 2002 experiments. https://arxiv.org/ftp/cond-mat/papers/0608/0608071.pdf. https://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0608071 . This is documented as the NHMFL only gave me access to the magnet in 2002 and 2003, these are documented facts.

    on page 5 it was noted the water corrodes and dissolves the Cu/Ag coil and the Cu and Ag can precitipate from the water as acid was used to collect the samples to prevent precipitation of ions of Cu and Ag to nanoparticles and bulk metals. It is important to note that RBL captures further the reprecipitation of these metal atoms with hydrogen for novel codeposition of nanoparticles in 2005 prior to Mosier Boss et Sszak.
    “During operation, the water corrodes, oxidizes and dissolves the Cu-Ag coil. Magnetic field effects on electrochemistry of corrosion and dissolution are explored here. The predicted low rates of pycnonuclear reactions on the basis of the Little Effect were also explored for hydrogen absorption within the Cu-Ag lattice. Water samples were collected from the magnet during its operation at various magnetic field strengths, coil temperatures and operation modes (ramping or stepping the field). The water samples were collected in acidic media to prevent the precipitation of the dissolved metals.”

    More details of explaining a co-deposition (precipitation of hydrogen with Cu and Ag to particles) effect and how the magnetic field accelerates based on proton catalysis rather than deuterium catalysis is explained on page 13 far beyond Mosier Boss ideas in 2005: ” In order for the Ag2O to precipitate, the protium assists by spin, orbital and coulomb interactions. The oxides have been detected on the surface of Cu-Ag coils by x-ray electron spectroscopy.” And “The absorbed protium in the coil during the operation of the magnet leads to enhanced proton spin catalyzed reactions in the coil under strong magnetization. These proton spin effects within the coil are explained by the Little Effect and expanded for explanations of diamond formation and most acid catalyzed reactions in chemistry. Here we consider such generalization for hydrogen atom spin catalyzing transformation of carbon to diamond and this second case of proton-acid spin catalyzed precipitation of Cu and Ag oxides. ”

    The paper further emphasizes high potentials and currents on page 13: “In addition to this demonstrated novel electrochemistry, the extremely high current (74,000 amps), high potential (403V), strong magnetic field (45 tesla), huge Lorentz pressure stress and thermal stress provide a very conducive environment for exploring the debated and controversial cold fusion.”

    In these patent and publication from 2000-02 you will find the following with clear obvious reduction to practice as captured by these Tohoku experiments:

    RBL on page 14 unifies the stellar magnetic fusion with the fusion in the metal lattices as by noting the different magnetic strengths and how stellar magnetic fields can arise in nanoferrometals or metal particles smaller than the domain size of the ferrometal (Fe, Co, Ni) : ” Although the Little Effect introduces spin torque effect for altering e- and p+ orbital dynamics for nuclear processes at much more moderate magnetic fields strengths in the lattices of the transition metals, many investigators have reasoned substantial magnetic contribution to the thermodynamics of fusion reactions by ultrastrong magnetic fields (>1012 tesla) in stellar bodies. ” And ” The magnetic fields and temperatures within the metal lattices (45-1000 tesla) considered here certainly do not approach stellar conditions (>1012 tesla) at least not over macroscopic spatial dimensions. ”

    And ” The differing conditions in the metal lattice relative to the stars lead to different mechanisms of pycnonuclear processes within the metals lattice of lower probability. Such low frequency pycnonuclear reactions and the magnetic field enhancement are here predicted, explored and demonstrated here on the basis of the Little Effect, whereby the magnetic organization of dense electrons, protons and metal nuclei within the metal lattice and thermal and pressure fluctuation cause oscillations between delocalized and localized electronic and protonic states, involving the already demonstrated s-d rehybridization and nuclear coupled intersystem crossing characteristic of Cu and Ag lattice under prevailing magnetic and thermal conditions such that e- and p+ become localized into s orbitals of the Ag with the strong electric field of the Ag nuclei strongly disrupting gamma exchange between the e- and p+ and e- —Ag nuclei for electron capture by the proton (reverse beta) and/or e- and/or p+ capture by Ag nuclei. ”

    And whereas gravity drives the star fusion, the electric and magnetic field drive metal hydride fusion as metal nuclei locally interact with hydrogen as hydride on page : ” In the case here with the metal lattice, the strong electric force of the metal nucleus provides the muscle, but the less frequent, rare hydrogen compression in the metal lattice is limited to individual hydrogen atoms in the form of hydride (H- ) species. Unlike gravitational compression involving many nuclei at the same time or thermonuclear fusion involving many high speed nuclei, the pycnonuclear processes involve individual localized hydrogenous species for lower frequencies and rare occurrences. The external magnetization organizes these individual rare events for increasing rates. ”

    RBL then on pages 15-16 gives a detailed mechanism of the uncoventional nuclear reaction in the metal hydride based on such electric and magnetic effect and relates to star fusion under gravitational driving force and the strong magnetic orientation noted by RBL in a single domain (nanosize ferrometal) of ferrometal and the intensification of such magnetism in s orbital of the single domain with multidomains weaking field of any given domain and the external magnetization orienting domains.

    Unlike Canon in 1990s and LENR patent and Cannon not reducing to practice as not noting the meaning of ‘fine particles’ as during the time in 1990s this referred to micron particles, But RBL reduced to practice in 2002 the nanosize and moreover the nano size of ferrometals as single domain as single domain of ferrometal is a nano size ” Although pure single-domain particles (mathematically) exist for some special geometries only, for most ferromagnets a state of quasi-uniformity of magnetization is achieved when the diameter of the particle is in between about 10 nanometers and 100nanometers[citation needed](Chris Binns, Introduction to Nanoscience and Technology, page 31, Wiley). The size range is bounded below by the transition to superparamagnetism and above by the formation of multiple magnetic domains. ” RBL explains why the nanosize accelerates the unconventional nuclear reaction as the magnetic field is over 1000 Tesla in such domains and such fields can be collapsed on a orbital in that domain for what RBL notes as fields on order of 10 power 13 Tesla as on page 16: ” The mechanism based on magnetic orchestration of pycnonuclear reactions involves the following steps: 1.) under the prevailing conditions hydrogen uptake by the metal lattice and the high current density allow the formation of some amount of a hydride species (H- ); 2.) the thermal and pressure fluctuations and magnetization cause the electronic rehybridization of the background Cu-Ag lattice with consequent sporadic localization and delocalization of these electrons and protons of hydride species (H- ) within the Cu-Ag lattice; 3.) these protons and electrons of this hydride species exist delocalized in the 4d-like orbitals of the Cu-Ag lattice; 4.) localization of protons and electrons produces this hydride species in the metal lattice by the rehybridization of 3d, 4d, 4s, and 5s orbitals of the metal lattice; 5.) such localization by lattice rehybridization and confinement of H- within sd hybrid orbitals contribute to greater s character of the interacting electrons and protons in the form of (ea – p+ eb – ) or (hydride species) within the sd hybrid orbitals within the metal lattice; 6.) within the sd hybrid orbitals the (ea – p+ eb – )with its net negative charge is strongly attracted in the localization to the nucleus (M47+) of the metal atoms within the lattice; 7.) the (ea – p+ eb – ) is heavier and more classical in its interactions with the nucleus; 8.) as the (ea – p+ eb – ) approaches the nucleus the ea – is driven into tighter orbital correlation with the p+ in order to shield the proton from the nearby nucleus (M47+) in this confined s orbital state for the local metal nuclear compression of the ea – and p+ ; 9.) the spin and magnetic properties of the confined (ea – p+ eb – ) state are more paramagnetic, an external magnetic field can therefore orients the nuclear spin of the metal atoms with the spin and orbital moments of the (ea – p+ eb – ); 10.) as the (ea – p+ eb – ) approaches the nucleus (M47+), the nuclear spin torques the eb – by nuclear spin-orbit interactions for its intersystem crossing, so eb – changes correlation with the (ea – – p+ ), thereby driving the ea – into the p+ for even tighter orbits, this orbital compression is strengthened by the huge nearby electric field of the metal nucleus within the s orbital of the metal atom; 11.) the resulting aligned spins of the metal nucleus (M47+) and the eb – organize the steering of ea – into collapse onto the p+ for reverse beta to form neutrons, eb – may also collapse onto the metal nucleus; the p+ may collapse onto metal nucleus; the resulting neutron may also collapse on the nucleus for various rare transmutation processes. See Table 7. 12.) the proximity (less than 0.5 Angstroms) of the ea – — p+ to the eb – and the metal nucleus (M47+) within the s orbital allows huge local magnetic fields within the s orbital for extremely strong spin torque of ea – into the p+ thereby preventing gamma exchange as in isolated hydrogen thereby allowing the ea – — p+ to form a neutron. It is within the s orbital with finite nonzero probability of the ea – — p+ and eb – having very close proximity to the metal nucleus that length scales of 10-10 m such that the magnetic forces within the s orbital are on the order of 1/(10-5) 2 times the magnetic forces between lattice electrons in the domain of say a ferrometal. The magnetic forces between lattice electrons in the domain of a ferrometal of Fe are on the order of 1000 tesla. So the magnetic forces between the e- and p+ and the metal nucleus for very close nuclear approach of the hydride species to the nucleus of a metal atoms is on the order of 1010 X 1000 tesla or 1013 tesla. Therefore within the s orbital of the metal lattice, the e- and p+ of the hydride species would locally experience tremendous magnetic fields on the order of the magnetic fields in magnetars. An external magnetic field organizes (as in this work) the (ea – p+ eb – ) and metal nuclei for more favorable weak interactions, leading to enhanced cross-sections for fusion events. In zero applied magnetic field, the proper spin and orbital orientations for such fusion processes are much more random and less likely. The important of such left-right symmetry during weak processes has been demonstrated by Yang and Lee [40]. Yang and Lee determined that within an external magnetic field, the nuclear spin oriented such that during the beta process the release of electron has specific momentum relative to the nucleus that released it. Here on the basis of the Little Effect, it is demonstrated that an external magnetic field can orient the e and nucleus for the reverse process of reverse beta for greater probability of such rare fusion events. The external magnetic field in this way organizes the spins for such symmetry for the reverse beta process and e- or p+ capture process by the metal nucleus for greater rates and reproducibility of the pycnonuclear reactions. Without the external magnetization, the cross-section and probability are much lower. Here these still slow nuclear processes within the strong magnetic environment, high current densities, Lorentz compression and thermal fluctuations are observed due to the long period of these conditions, more than 2000 hours. Although, the rates of pycnonuclear reactions are still very slow under the conditions within the strong magnet, even greater energy input via laser irradiation of the Cu-Ag matrix can promote much greater pycnonuclear fusion rates for future practical energy sources. Large magnetic field can build up huge potential energy due to Pauli antisymmetry with faster spin torque of electrons into protons for faster neutron formation (reverse beta processes) and neutron, electron and proton captures by Ag and Pd nuclei. The greater spin torque on orbital motion and the greater nuclear induced intersystem crossing also contribute more pycnonuclear phenomena in 4d relative to 3d transition metals in strong magnetic fields. ”

    Sir one last note. In expressing my frustration is being cheated out of profit that I truly earned and deserved and expressing the negative effect this world has had on my life and causing me struggle, in all fairness this does not mean or is not equivalent to meaning I am suicidal. And expressions like ‘this world is killing me’ is not equivalent to suicidal tendency! On the contrary I have a great love for life and life is precious and my complaint against being cheated is due to the preciousness of my life!

    • http://lenrftw.net LENR G

      Dude. Frank is not your psychologist nor the gatekeeper for scientific recognition.

      • Gerald

        As I agree with your statement, I find it somewhat hard to put it like you put it in the reply.

        Rlittle posts sometimes helped me better understand some processes a little, his way of explaining things is clear. The part of his personal problems I sometimes go by or read them, thats a choice. How he writes it looks to me he is a nice person and maybe his feelings towards the LENR history are correct, I don’t know. As a person to a person I hope he overcomes his struggle and who knows that posting here helps.

        • http://lenrftw.net LENR G

          As a person to a person I hope he overcomes his struggle and who knows that posting here helps.

          Totally agree. Seems like a good guy.

          • Stephen

            I also like him somehow. I do think his ideas are recognised and respected in these forums.

            I understand his frustration I think in many ways R. Little’s ideas were a ahead of their time. Only now as more is generally known about Condensed Materials science, Nano Plasmonics and other ideas and experimental results abou LENR etc. is the topic really taking off as an accepted science.

            I think the best way he can be recognized is to participate with groups now and add his experience, ideas and even some criticisms to the hope the discussions about theory and experimentation. He would not need to highlight his past in detail as he does other than providing a link maybe to early papers as people would already be curious about him now. He has so much to add there and others with there own ideas and perspectives could really use his constructive help. R. Little is a recognized by many as part of the story even if he doesn’t realize it yet.

            I hope Reginald can look forward and not back and help us and be part of this new wave of them Open Science approach that has allowed these ideas to germinate and flourish. With out that environment those ideas would always find it hard to get recognition unfortunately.

            Being a participant in OS even in a small way like me is great. Being able to participate constructively or add something substantial to the whole development and acceptance of LENR in these more ready times this must be amazing.

            • RLittle

              Stephen you are a Blessing. I am not trying to be selfish when I tell of all I have done in science and people steal my ideas and discoveries. But such robbery leaves me in poverty struggling to survive. But when I beg borrow and almost starve the few pure in this world will understand why I cry bloody murder as scientists slay me.

        • RLittle

          Hi Gerald, Thanks for friendly professional response! Reginald B. Little

          • Stephen

            I think many feel the same.

          • Stephen

            By the way Reginald have you been following the latest developments an Magnetar’s? It’s interesting that they seem to show accelerated beta decay in some cases and have intersting gamma and X-ray bursts and flares. I wonder if your ideas about the magnetic field a your theory relate in any way to those observations.

            • RLittle

              Hi Stephen, I thank you tremendously. After more than 40 years of study and work and labor to hear just one voice of encouragement is refreshing. To express honesty and truth toward someone as me is noble, virtuous, civilized and great intellect and wisdom. So sad that many inflict pain on me (the injured) and then falsely accuse (like trying to accuse me of insanity) me if I cry in pain. Thank you very much for your help.

              • RLittle

                Hi Stephen, back to the science. Thanks for the professional interaction and the questions of science. Thanks! Sorry for the late response as I am too poor to have a computer of my own!

                But Yes indeed, I have given thought to magnetar’s and the recent studies of such in particular the points you raise of generating gamma ray and x-ray burst (as prior science does not understand how magnetars generate such gamma ray bursts and such are most powerful magnetism known in the universe). Such effort of me to give understanding and mechanism is part of my general trend over the last 17 years of finding more and more phenomena of relevance to ‘the Little Effect’ , LENR is only one example of relevant phenomena to the Little Effect!

                As for LENR, I noted how before Reginald B. Little ( RBL) noted { See : https://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0608071} that the nanosize of ferrometals have single domains and the hydrogen (H) in such single domain can involve many H with many p+ and e- and the formation of hydrides (e-p+e-). And RBL noted in 2005 how the strong magnetic field in the domain can allow it to take the thermal energy and focus it into magnetism and the magnetism into quantum fields over the domain as by ‘the Little Effect’ of many spins (composites as hydrides) altering orbitals from the domain size to atom size to subatom shell, subshell orbital sizes. So in the prior publication in 2005, I noted by the Little Effect that the 1000 Tesla of a ferrometal domain increasing to 10(12) or 10(13) Tesla as the domain magnetism is focused into an s orbital of the metal. It is the magnetism not the possible associated electric fields on different scales! It is a direct magnetic effect. Maybe it is indirectly electric in manifestation but by Little it is a direct effect of magnetism! {This is why Lewis Larsen since 2005 has shifted from his original high electric field model to a collective magnetic model. Larsen want tell you this; but I will. But I in 2005 prior to Widom and Larsen put forth magnetism not electric field. They (Widom and Larsen) have learned from me and changed the nature of their model (since 2005) so the Widom Larsen theory is less high electric field and more magnetic as RBL created originally prior to 2005!} People get mad if the truth is told. But true intellects (Stephen) as yourself have ears to hear. So my successful theory of accelerating unconventional nuclear reactions in 2000 involved my realizing how stellar conditions can be momentarily created in s orbitals within the transition metal hydride. It is a magnetic phenomenon of concentrating energy as originally discovered by RBL. This is why Larsen in his interview (http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/congress-cold-fusion-briefing-1.3772873) last week changed his view from 2005 and noted how energy in many particles of a system can be focused into fewer particles, such cannot occur by electric fields as the electric field would disburse the particles. But the magnetic field of RBL is the key as discovered by RBL, strong magnetism causes attraction for the charges to collapse and the motion of many to be gathered into fewer. What Larsen will not tell you is that RBL first reasoned that!!! And as the truth is told these people get more and more hateful and mean. I discovered this beauty in poverty with pennies. Why steal my credit and keep me in poverty? it is inhuman and mean and cruel.

                But back to the science, just as the magnetism gathers energy for the CNT formation and for the unconventional nuclear reactions it also can explain the magnetar generating gamma rays as under the huge magnetic field the motions of many components of the magnetar can focus into fewer parts of the magnetar to intensify energy to gamma rays. I used similar mechanism to explain in 2006 how lightning can produce x-rays in spite of the low temperatures.

                So now the magnetar and its ability to produce gamma ray burst and beta processes is totally related to this magnetic effect of RBL in a beautiful way . So beautiful it is and sudden , unexpected, broad, deep of magnetic phenomena allowing processes to occur in novel unbefore ways as first discovered by RBL in 2000 (https://www.google.com/patents/US20020192141) in single domain ferromagnetism , whereby the magnetism is able to distribute and redistribute energy in an efficient nondissipative way so as to transform heat to magnetism and localize and delocalize magnetic energy over many carbon (C) atoms into fewer C atoms so as to couple the chemical decomposition of CH4 + H2 to C(s) + H2(g) in nonclassical many to chemical composition to graphene and CNT at lower temperatures as the energy cohered, synchronized, amplified, stimulated absorbed released by few C-H, C-C bonds into over many C atoms over nano size and single domain in nano ferrometal and formed graphene and CNT. The strong magnetism in the nano-domain even down to macromolecular to molecular to atomic and to shells, subshells and orbitals and spins is the basis for collective self interaction, particles, motions and energy (and is the basis as by RBL in 2005 for explaining quantum mechanics) {https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=16065} so at relatively low temperatures (cold) the energy of many can be focused into fewer such that catalytic chemical dynamics (in synchrony coherence, stimulation) on the ferrometal in the strong magnetic field can occur at low temperatures of 7000 – 1000 C than the much higher temp of 3000 Celsius for breaking and altering C-C bonds in C plasma. Such effect of such phenomena of magnetic and spin alteration of valence , covalence and orbitals as called the Little Effect (totally beautiful, new, unexpected, broad and deep) as RBL discovered in 2000. Since 2000 I have successfully applied this magnetic phenomena in many other systems such as the ability of thunderstorms to produce x-rays, gamma rays at very low temperatures as just as in the CNT mechanism the magnetism between many particles in the cloud allow organization and focus of distributed electric charge into a point singularity where from lightning discharges! {https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=16065} The magnetic organization focus of energy in biochemistry as enzymes analyze chemical alterations of proteins at low temperatures by focusing macromolecuar energy and heat into few bonds (2007). I reasoned the motion of carbon atoms in ferrometals as superfluid at high temperatures of 700 Celsius by such magnetic phenomena in 2000. I used such to reason the ability of graphene to organize the thermal motions of colliding atoms to transform heat to electricity in 2010. Such ability of graphene was recently directly observed by researchers in Arkansas: {http://physics.aps.org/synopsis-for/10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.126801}. By the mechanism of the Little Effect and magnetic fields organizing thermal energy I developed in 2005 a relativistic model of high temperature superconductivity {http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/IJPS/article-abstract/592BAB049585} which is successful although I have not expressed in computationally the concept is solid and true! I also developed a mechanism for magnetic organization of intense heat in the suns corona into powerful gravity and the gravity into strong magnetic fields in sun and stars and how such magnetic field is transformed to quantum fields and weak fields ad strong fields toward the core of the star. {http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/IJPS/article-abstract/592BAB049585} So likewise just as in magnetism ordering; concentrating and focusing heat to magnetism during CNT formation; during biochemical enzymatic; during lighting discharge from broad thundercloud; during superconductivity in hot media; during field transformations from the surface of stars toward the stellar cores , likewise RBL and this RB Little Effect give explanation as to how magnetars produce gamma ray burst by magnetic phenomena of the RBL Effect but under much more powerful magnetic fields!

                Such beautiful science over many years I contribute, it is my passion, my joy, my blessing. But many hateful people will step over many great attributes looking for dirt to throw.

                Thank you Stephen for rising above mediocrity!

            • sam
            • RLittle

              Hi Stephen, based on the mechanism I gave below (in conjunction with this useful video) it can be reasoned that the nonuniformity (redistribution) of energy/matter of neutrons or ‘crust of neutrons’ may form due to the huge magnetic field in/about the magnetar. Such ‘crust of neutrons’ interact magnetically to form what I have called magnetic bonds and these structures can assume different shapes and domainsof different energies like huge neutrons molecules of different excitations as organized in the magnetic media of the magnetar. So the sudden relaxation of the excited ‘crust of neutron’ can released gamma ray burst in analog to excited chemical molecules releasing lased photons. This may be a viable mechanism. But I am sure it is in analog to strong magnetic field allowing components pieces of the magnetar (neutrons) to absorb the ambient energy magnetism so as to build high energy state which in the video is called ‘crust of neutrons’ . Such energy of crust of neutrons have huge energies relative to terrestrial and solar and such huge energy accumulation in the magnetar is allowed as the magnetars has huge magnetic field relative to the earth’s magnetic field and the sun’s magnetic field. So the huge magnetar magnetic field can allow huge energy accumulations and rehybridization of neutron motions in the huge magnetic field in the magnetar to form these ‘crust of neutrons’ by ‘the Little Effect’ and the sudden relaxation by so perturbation would release the accumulated energy as gamma ray bursts. This is very beautiful. But the point I try to communicate is the common underlying theme of the Little Effect whereby strong magnetic field allow alterations of orbitals and motions to change shapes and symmetry and accumulate energy as energy accumulates in electronic orbitals of carbon atom on the surface of single magnetic domain of nano iron for forming crust of electron orbitals to rehybridize the carbon sp to sp2 to sp3; or the energy in the earth’s magnetic field allows accumulation of charged ice crystals in thunderstorm so as to alter motions and positions of charge rehybridize over miles in sky the 3D charge in the cloud to 2D to 1D to singularity for momentary crust of charge that has huge electric potential to discharge (billions of volts) discharge across miles of air insulation to ground of earth; or the energy in the sun’s magnetic field allows accumulation of heat to rearrange the heat of the hot corona (millions) of degrees into gravity and electric fields and the magnetism alters the gravity and electric field into magnetic vorticity at the surface of the sun and these magnetic vorticities can accumulate in vorticity and energy ‘in the strong magnetism of the sun by RB Little Effect to cause crust of vorticities (solar flares) which collapse and release energy to earth solar storms; and so now the much much huge energy and magnetic fields in the magnetar can allow as by ‘the Little Effect’ the accumulation of neutron motion and magnetization and energy for forming rehybridizing the neutrons structures into ‘crust of neutrons by ‘the Little Effect’ so that such crust dynamics and phenomena can cause sudden collapse of the magnetar loop for gamma flares. So now the magnetar has gamma flares and the sun has lower energy thermal flaresand coronal mass ejections due to the much much greater energy/mass density of the magnetar relative to the sun and the resulting larger magnetic field characteristic of the magnetar so by ‘the Little Effect’ more magnetic motion can accumulate about the magnetar and gamma rays are flared by magnetar. The lower solar mass and magnetic fields relatve to magnetar mass and energy computes smaller magnetic accumulation and release of lower energy waves from radio waves to gamma waves. But thank GOD the solar emission is low in gamma emission relative to the magnetar huge burst of gamma. Stephen, I thank GOD for the Little Effect! Praise GOD!

  • Warthog

    I wonder why they chose to sputter nickel onto palladium. It seems to me that it would make more sense to sputter palladium onto nickel. It also appears to me that this setup can be vastly simplified by using a half-loop of nickel wire. Sputter on palladium in a regular sputtering setup.

    Remove the nickel loop from the sputtering chamber, and place into a much smaller pressure vessel, introduce D2 or H2, and heat the wire loop directly. by ohmic heating.

    Based on past experience, an assembly of that arrangement can be easily fitted inside a 1″ OD tube (and perhaps even a 1/2″ OD tube) with connections using standard Swagelok fittings.

    • Ophelia Rump

      It might be wise to test with the lowest concentration of fuel possible.

      So you get less boom if you find more then you were looking for.

      • Warthog

        I don’t think either nickel or palladium is “fuel”….they just provide the quantum mechanical environment in which the “nuclear active environment” (Ed Storms term) happens. The reactive volume should be pretty much the same whether you sputter nickel onto palladium, or vice versa.

        My thought was that nickel is a lot cheaper than palladium to provide what amounts to a physical support for the sputtered zone.

        • Oaklandthinktank

          Nickel also deposits from nickel tetracarbonyl at just 200c, so deposition onto pyrolyzed chicken feathers, soaked in metallic salts, might be even cheaper! Aligned forests might help the Celani-filaments cohere, wave-form-wise? Meh. Once humans can maintain stable, nucleic-balanced reactions, like a chicken, Little’s tiny beads might needs be made of fungal spore, or diatoms? Nickel, absorbed by CO at 180c, deposited onto a variety of geometric nanostructures, could be LENR’s silicon wafer.

          • Warthog

            Nickel tetracarbonyl is “very” toxic. Sputtering is far safer and can actually be done at lower temperatures than 200C.

            As to the chicken feathers and diatoms, I will leave those to you.

  • sam

    Can anyone translate these comments
    from Lenr forum.
    xiaobiu267 Forum-Beginner
    Member since Sep 22nd 2016
    Last Activity 4 minutes ago, Creating a thread in forum “Physics”
    Recent Activity About Me
    User Avatar
    xiaobiu267 – 5 minutes ago
    Posted a new thread: /美国YU毕业证/Q微790042814办理美国叶史瓦大学原版毕业证原版成绩单|美国YU文凭学历学位认证

    User Avatar
    xiaobiu267 – 6 minutes ago
    Posted a new thread: (澳洲大学毕业证)快速办理Curtin毕业证》Q/微信790042814科廷大学毕业证成绩单学历认证 +学位证+留学认证+教育部认证 Curtin University

    User Avatar
    xiaobiu267 – 7 minutes ago
    Posted a new thread: (澳洲大学毕业证)快速办理JCU毕业证》Q/微信790042814詹姆斯库克大学毕业证成绩单学历认证 +学位证+留学认证+教育部认证 James Cook University
    Thanks

    • Ged

      Using Google translate:

      1)

      US YU diploma / Q micro 790,042,814 US handling Yeshiva University diploma original original transcript | American YU diploma academic degree certification

      2)

      ( Australian university diploma ) Express Curtin diploma “Q / micro-channel 790 042 814 Curtin University diploma degree certificate transcripts of qualifications + + + certification study certified by the Ministry of Education Curtin University

      3)

      ( Australian university diploma ) Express JCU diploma “Q / micro-channel 790 042 814 James Cook University academic transcript certified diploma degree certificate + + + certification study certified by the Ministry of Education James Cook University

      What is the context of these posts? Look like education history pieces of resumes, or something.

      • sam

        The thread has been removed from Lenr forum.
        Thanks for translation.

        • Mats002

          ‘Lost in translation’ comes to mind ^^

      • http://www.lenrnews.eu/lenr-summary-for-policy-makers/ AlainCo

        it is spam

  • Warthog

    IIRC, both Schwartz (Jet Energy) and Miley (Leneuco) have used Pd/Ni combined substrates with both deuterium and protium.

    • Ged

      This is an interesting idea. If Pd/D and Ni/H system work in slightly different ways or ranges, an “alloy” may be synergistic and allow an effect that combines both ranges. It may not be as potent as mastering either system, but it may be easier to run with a larger or more forgiving dynamic range. I know of several semiconductor systems that work on this principle. Never thought about it being applied to LENR before.