The E-Cat as a Cavity Resonator Producing 50-120keV Radiation With Side Effects (Paul Dodgshun)

The following post has been submitted by Paul Dodgshun

The E-cat as a cavity resonator producing 50-120keV radiation with side effects.

Define machine :
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page

‘A machine is a tool containing one or more parts that uses energy to perform an intended action.’
[following the definition, a helpful sentence]

‘Machines are usually powered by mechanical, chemical, THERMAL, or ELECTRICAL means, …’

The essence of a machine is to use energy (in all its forms) for a defined purpose.
—————————————-

http://www.e-catworld.com/2012/09/24/summary-of-citta-del-capo-radio-metropolitana-interview-with-andrea-rossi/comment-page-1/

Part 2 – The Theory
The main effect is the thermalization of low-energy Gamma (50-120 keV).
The transmutation of Nickel into Copper is a side effect.
—————————————-

The cavity magnetron outputs microwaves using the interaction of a stream of electrons with a magnetic field while moving past a series of open metal cavities (cavity resonators)

So you need an oscillator that produces ‘low-energy Gamma (50-120 keV)’.

What oscillator would do that?

Free Electron Laser Oscillator (FELO) – An FELO for hard X-Rays

https://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/Hamburg2016/Hamburglectures/KimXEFLO.pdf

A low-gain device with a low-loss x-ray cavity
https://www.google.com/patents/EP2753155A2?cl=en

Where have we got cavities in the Nickel that could oscillate? We have just been discussing that. The cavities in the Nickel generated by very high pressure H2 and close to the Nickel surface where EMF stimulation will work. The cavities absorb some of their own heat output to keep the Nickel and Hydrogen atoms/molecules vibrating as the cavities emit energy as radiation.

A resonant cavity is a MACHINE. It uses heat and EMF stimulation to output 50-120keV radiation. Energy inputs and outputs defined. In the case of the E-cat, the 50-120keV radiation is dumped in the lead shielding, the lead heats the water and boils it into steam. That is CoP=6 sorted.

Next figure what kicks off p+Li7->2He4+17.3MeV. From Piantelli :-
1: Orbital Capture
(H-)-2e -> p

2: Nuclear Capture
p+Ni -> Cu
-1H + 58Ni-> 59Cu + 3.417 MeV{1a}
-1H + 60Ni-> 61Cu + 4.796 MeV{1b}
-1H + 61Ni-> 62Cu + 5.866 MeV{1c}
-1H + 62Ni-> 63Cu + 6.122 MeV{1d}
-1H + 64Ni-> 65Cu + 7.453 MeV{1e}

3: Coulomb Repulsion
p+Ni -> p+Ni 6.7Mev

Repelled ‘p’s
3.1 p+Ni -> Cu Nuclear Capture as in 2:
3.2 p+Li7 -> 2He4 Lithium Fission

Why cannot (H-)-2e -> p feed directly into p+Li7 -> 2He4 as well as p+Ni -> Cu?
p+Li7->2(He4+17.3/2Mev)

He4+8.65MeV hits H2 and produces one of H0+H2 or two of H1 (where 0,1,2 is the number of attached electrons).
He4 is also looking for electrons to form a neutral atom. H0 is a proton p and the H1 a heavy electron that might reach the Li nucleus through an electron cloud of just seven electrons.

That is a possible four protons out for two He collisions with two H2 molecules from just one p+Li7 event.
That has the makings of a chain reaction !! Now figure out the control scheme to get the number of ‘p’s in one
generation the same as in the next, so the reactor can run in a stable fashion.

  • GiveADogABone

    I have had a lot of fun with this and it is the first time that I have seen a narrative that even begins to explain the whole process from start to stop :-
    Rossi states that the Rossi Effect Reactions(RER) are located in the microcavities of the Nickel.

    I idealize these microcavities as inflated penny-shaped cracks (PSC) in terms of fracture mechanics. The PSC are inflated by molecular Hydrogen at very high pressures. Much of the Nickel on the internal surface of the PSC is therefore at tensile yield stress. High tensile stress attracts Hydrogen and Hydrogen embrittles the Nickel causing further cracking. This much can be done cold.

    Heating to about 500C raises the pressure in the PSC and that causes further yielding and cracking. Temperature cycling from ambient to 500C causes fatigue cracking which further cracks the Nickel. The target area for the RER is now prepared with cracks and high hydrogen levels.

    At 500C, the PSC is now in a state where it is ready for RER to be initiated. This requires the formation of a Hydrogen plasma in the PSC. This requires the application of external Radio Frequency(RF) EMFs. Rossi states that an anode and cathode can be applied to the Nickel powder. The applied RF causes thermoionic electrons discharged by the Nickel to be accelerated in accordance with pillbox RF cavity oscillator theory.

    The accelerated electrons are capable of ionizing the molecular Hydrogen, H+, H0 and H- ions can result and the electrons also heat the Nickel surface where they impact. The H+, H- and electrons start to form a plasma and the oscillating electromagnetic fields of the RF cavity drive the charged particles towards the central axis of symmetry of the PSC where a plasma column between the two Nickel faces (think an arc welding machine) of the PSC is formed.

    Once the plasma column is fully formed a high conductivity route exists between the faces of the PSC and the RF supplies energy to sustain the plasma. The plasma can now radiate:-
    https://www.plasma-universe.co
    A plasma (often ionized gas, but see Pseudo-plasma), is a gaseous substance consisting of free charged particle such as electrons, protons and other ions, that respond very strongly to electromagnetic fields. The free charges, make the plasma highly electrically conductive that may carry electric currents, and generate magnetic fields that may cause the plasma to constrict (or pinch) into filaments, generate particle beams, emit a wide range of radiation:-
    (radio waves, light, microwave, x-ray, gamma and synchrotron radiation), …

    H+ and H- ions are present in the plasma but they are not accelerated by the RF, so impact with the Nickel is low energy but sufficient for the H- to join the electron cloud and sink to the K-shell of the Nickel electrons. In the K-shell the heavy electrons are subject to electron capture by the Nickel nucleus, resulting in the formation of a Copper nucleus with net energy release. The value of the release depends on which Nickel isotope is involved. Up to Copper62 all Copper isotopes are unstable with varying half-lives and the decay product is Nickel. The emissions from the Copper decay, specifically low energy gamma, X-ray from electron filling of the vacant K-shell or Auger Effect electrons aid heating of the plasma, allow that the applied RF can be reduced.

    Once started, the issue is how do you stop the process? The plasma column is the factory of the RER. It provides the H- ions for electron capture and provides the electromagnetic radiation that leaves. To stop the reaction, the plasma column must be disrupted. Plasma is affected by electric and magnetic fields, so application of the correct fields disrupts the plasma and the supply of H- to the Nickel nucleii is reduced. It is the removal of the cavity oscillator magnetic field that would allow the H- ions in the plasma column to disperse.

  • GiveADogABone

    ‘This is the Rossi Effect. The reactions happen in the microcaves of the Nickel powder’

    https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/docservicepdf_pct/id00000032278621/PDOC/WO2016018851.pdf
    Rossi Effect and apparatus to produce heat with high efficiency

    Nickel powders, Hydrogen at a pressure of 3-6 bars and a temperature of 400-600C, and at one side of the reactor is put an anode, at the opposite a cathode, so that electrons are accelerated up to 100keV. At these conditions neutrons are freed from the reactants and further recaptured by the atoms emitting photons with energies between 50 and 100keV, which are thermalized.

    This is the Rossi Effect. The reactions happen in the microcaves of the Nickel powder which also shields the gamma rays during their thermalization: this makes intrinsically safe the reactor, which does not emit radiations.


    What is claimed is the use of hydrides together with Hydrogen and Nickel to obtain exothermic reactions, together with Hydrogen and Deuterium, in particular the preferred hydride is LiAlH4.

  • GiveADogABone

    Control of a pillbox cavity oscillator:
    http://casa.jlab.org/publications/viewgraphs/USPAS2016/L_10_Fundam_RF_Cav.pdf
    Fundamentals of RF Cavities

    All the buzzwords are there. It seems that these cavity oscillators emit RF noise. It is also seems possible that control of these oscillators is by changing the standing wave modes within them. Each mode has it own resonant frequency, so maybe it comes down to playing the right tune? What is particularly noteworthy is that the monopole TM010 and bipole TM110 modes change the beam energy transfer from a maximum to a minimum.

    websearches :
    pillbox xray cavity resonator

  • GiveADogABone

    Does the LENR reactor diagram communicate anything interesting?

  • GiveADogABone

    The LENR reactor?
    Atomic Hydrogen and applied EMF in, X-rays, heat and emitted EMF out.
    This is just the small relation of the cavity magnetron.

  • GiveADogABone

    Apologies for a delayed response but there was a crucial link missing that is presented below. I found it last night after a heavy session with Mr Google.

    The link is between three things :-
    1: Hydrogen blistering (how the hydrogen can keep on inflating the penny shaped crack)
    2: A pillbox x-ray cavity resonator (a harmonic oscillator with a single frequency), and
    3: A penny (call it a cent in the USA?) shaped crack (fracture mechanics that dictates how the crack grows).

  • giovanniontheweb

    hi chapman, your confusion is higher than what you believe, have a good rest

    • Chapman

      That was a weird statement…

      I can’t tell if that was a joke, an insult, or just Jack Daniels talking.

      For the record, it looks like you are translating from some other primary language. As you would know from other posts, I am a big supporter of bilingualism and folks bravely crossing language barriers, so I am not criticizing you if that is the case. In fact, I enjoy knowing what a persons native language is and observing how their minds translates certain terms and expressions when they speak in english. So do not take any insult from my comment if you were actually making a deep and clever joke that just did not come through clearly!

      If you WERE intending an insult for some reason, well – nice try… You gotta try harder than that! But keep at it, someday you will get it right, and I will insult you back, then you will try some feeble comeback, and I will give back some cutting rebuke and a comment about your kung-fu, and so on, and so on – and we will all have a good laugh. 🙂

  • Kevmo ✓ᵀʳᵘᵐᵖ

    Is a cavity resonator an example of chemical energy giving off a nuclear byproduct?

  • Jouni Tuomela

    Please give some examples of resonatinon in other frequencies, like sound. Not much there to talk about?

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wvJAgrUBF4w

  • Zephir

    The E-Cat isn’t cavity machine – and even if it would, the above article doesn’t bring any new insight from it.

    http://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/string_theory.png

    Frank Znidarsiac has a theory, that the mutual resonance of surface and transverse waves of electron orbitals can help to overcome Coulomb barier.

    http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/zpt/chapter1.html

    Though his predictions of the resonance frequency are too high in my opinion: in the range of terahertz. IMO this frequency could be lowered if two or more atoms would form a molecular orbital temporarily during their mutual collisions within crystal lattice along long lines. This could explain the occasional emissions of radiowaves from LENR system.

    https://www.lenr-forum.com/forum/index.php/Thread/3437-The-general-cold-fusion-theory-aka-the-broad-view-of-LENR/

    The same effect (i.e. the massive entanglement) could happen with atom nuclei, which would decrease the resonance frequency from MeV into a keV range. In this case the long line of packed atom nuclei would behave like the vibrating rod exhibiting longitudinal waves.

  • Axil Axil

    Rossi stopped seeing copper in his ash when he stopped using copper pipe in his reactor. The copper seen in the ash may have been caused by contamination from the pipe.

    Theory must conform to experimental observations. Lugano shows that all the isotopes of nickel converge to Ni62, even Ni64 becomes Ni62, and no on otom of copper is detected.

    nickel-62 is the most tightly bound nucleus in terms of energy of binding per nucleon. This high binding energy of nickel isotopes in general makes nickel an “end product” of many nuclear reactions (including neutron capture reactions) throughout the universe and accounts for the high relative abundance of nickel.

    Protons can enter the Nickel nucleus by these protons will be converted to neutrons via electron capture.

    All the unstable nickel isotopes decay into some other element (copper and cobalt) so the way that nickel gets to Ni62 is most likely through proton capture and then electron capture. Ni62 is a nuclear dead end and is great stuff for a non reactive substrate in which LENR could occur.

    From experimental observation using their on line spectrometer, DGT told me that heavy element transmutation is not important in LENR as a source of energy. All the gainful reactions take place in the light elements. The heavy elements like nickel only function to support the topological conversion and amplification of EMF.

  • Ophelia Rump

    Now figure out the control scheme to get the number of ‘p’s in one
    generation the same as in the next, so the reactor can run in a stable fashion.

    First you need to determine if there are too few or two many P’s per generation by default.
    I would expect simple doping of the material to get you most of the way to target.

    After that you need some modest tuning variable.

    • giovanniontheweb

      control theory in the imaginary domain addresses your concerns very precisely and in a predictable way as far as you know the process, reverse engineering in the imaginary domain might give you possible directions if you are able to read it. You are actually guessing the North in a forest with no threes being in the dark and having no clue about astronomy, fair to try in case of life or death.

    • giovanniontheweb

      following your posts let me think there is not an individual behind this name but a team as the knowledge of yours swings from east to west too easy, never mind, enjoy your day.

  • GiveADogABone

    Some more data on the p+Ni reaction :
    http://journals.aps.org/pr/abstract/10.1103/PhysRev.54.1021
    Nickel bombarded with 6.3-Mev protons shows activities of half-lives of 10.5±0.6 min., 3.4±0.3 hr., and 12.8±0.8 hr., corresponding to known periods of Cu62, Cu61 and Cu64, respectively.

    The reactions are principally of the p−n type but there is evidence that in the case of Cu62 proton capture occurs at energies below the p−n threshold.

    The maximum β-ray energies obtained by absorption method are 2.8, 1.2 and 0.68 Mev for Cu62, Cu61 and Cu64, respectively.

    Thick target excitation curves are given.

    Copper bombarded with 6.3-Mev protons shows two activities of half-lives 38.3±0.5 min. and 235±20 days due to Zn63 and Zn65, respectively.

    Both must be formed by p−n reactions.

    The Zn63 positrons have a maximum energy of 2.3±0.15 Mev.

    Thick target excitation curve shows a threshold proton energy of 4.1±0.1 Mev in good agreement with the energy relations.

    Average (thick target) cross section for the Cu63(p−n)Zn63 reaction is 0.28×10−25 cm2. For protons of energy 6.1 Mev it is 0.95×10−25 cm.

    Received 14 October 1938