“The E-Cat is neither CHEMICAL, FISSION nor FUSION. It is a MACHINE!” (Chapman)

The following is a comment made by Chapman on the previous thread.

As I said back in MAY!

———————

Chapman
May 4, 2016 at 7:16 PM
Dear Mr. Rossi,

Folks seem to be having a hard time visualizing what is actually happening in an E-Cat. Please allow me to put forth this visual model in order to clarify the “inner workings” and “deep mysteries” within.

Consider a standard kitchen blender with a glass carafe, like you make margaritas in during warm summer afternoons.

Like most blenders, the lid has a small plug which can be removed for adding ingredients during operation. Around the hole for the plug there is a small flat lip.

Now, imagine this:

1. Remove the plug, and balance a few steel ball bearings on the lip around the hole.

2. Turn on the blender, just on low to start with, but SLOWLY increase the blender until it is up to “High”.

Take a moment to look at it. The blades are whirling around at high RPM and the ball bearings are jiggling around from the vibration, teetering around the edge of the lip.

3. Now, WHACK the blender with a rolling pin!

What happens?

The ball bearings fall from the lip and into the fast spinning blades below, and are sent smashing through the glass of the carafe, shattering it into pieces!

In this visual aid, the blender blades are Nickel atoms, the ball bearings are Hydrogen Ions liberated from the Lithium-Aluminum-Hydride and the glass carafe is the web of Lithium Atoms mixed throughout.

Heating the mixture to just short of the melting point of the nickel, and pumping up the electron shells about the nickel nuclei is represented by the power of the high speed blades.

Whacking the blender with a rolling pin is identical to sending an Electromagnetic Pulse through the energized e-cat reactor vessel. Deformation of the electron shells causes the capture and eventual disassembly of hydrogen ions within the maelstrom of the electron shell energy fields resulting in the energetic expulsion of suddenly solitary protons.

These ejected protons then collide with lithium atoms and transmutate Lithium 7 to Beryllium 8, which promptly decay to two Alpha – which consequently gain electrons to become Helium atoms.

The process of the forced decay of Lithium to Helium – resulting in a large energy release – is well documented, and was the first nuclear fission process ever demonstrated. [see Cockcroft-Walton; 1932]

The genius of the e-cat is in its application of the primary LENR process (proton liberation from an energized nickel-hydride) to effectively utilize individual Nickel atoms as sub-Nano scale proton accelerators.

Indeed, this invention should be rightly considered a breakthrough in Nano-Tech Engineering, as the apparatus is, in fact, mechanical in nature rather than chemical or nuclear, just as a Scanning Electron Microscope is a MACHINE, not a “reaction”.

Consider: This process does not involve molecular interactions and formations (other than the Hydride fuel supplement), so this exhibit can not be called “chemical” in nature. And, while we see Helium being produced while Hydrogen is consumed, this clearly is not “Fusion”, as it is a sequence going through Lithium and then DOWN to Helium. Now, in modern terms, the breakdown of Beryllium is a “decay” into Alpha particles as radiation, so this clearly does not qualify as fission under current models.

So I repeat, the E-Cat is neither CHEMICAL, FISSION nor FUSION. It is a MACHINE! A beautiful, badass, Nano-Tech, Energy Liberating Machine!

GOD BLESS YOU, Mr. Rossi. May he continue to bless your endeavours with success, while you continue to work to bring this to the masses!

– Chapman –

——————————–

I have repeatedly gone on and on about the fact that the reaction chain is aneutronic, and the only neutron troubles arise as the result of misguided individuals insisting on FOULING their experiments with deuterium, thinking they were chasing a classic “Hot-Fusion” model of fusing hydrogen into helium.

Again, I say to all, this has been out there for years, and anyone can read up and understand what the process is and how it works.

But I would point out one thing I think you need to look closer at. Piantelli writes about the proton energy at expulsion – after the disassociation of the hydrogen – as being around 6.7MEV. Unfortunately, that is derived from the coulomb barrier potential resulting from the total charged nucleons involved. But if you think it through you will realize that the hydrogen dissociates at the point where the external forces equal the attractive force of its own structure – a little over 1 MEV. The hydrogen ION cannot penetrate to the deepest reaches of the electron cloud because it is ripped apart only part way down.

You still get protons with enough energy for the lowest probability lithium penetrations, but a reduced total count. So where does the additional energy come from to pump the protons up not only to the point of totally dominating the lithium, but even absorption by the nickel?

That is where the Plasmons come in. As “superstructures” they affect colliding protons by dramatically increasing the proton energy, enabling direct nickel absorption. And the same mechanism also facilitates supercharging alpha particles from the lithium decay to the point where they also can penetrate the nickel.

For all those people arguing about collision statistics based upon accelerator models, I would remind you that the protons in question are not fired from an external source, to be deflected and lost, but rather are internally released. The proper comparison would be photon migration from the center of the sun to the surface. 20,000 to 100,000 years.

Read about “Drunkard’s walk” and you will understand that even the LOWEST PROBABILITY collision results become guaranteed certainties after no more than SECONDS of the internal pinball-like environment. And, speaking of pinball, consider that while a proton may bounce off a nickel atom like a pinball bounces off a passive bumper, when the pinball bounces off a plasmon it is like hitting an ACTIVE bumper that kicks the ball away harder than it approached.

Anyway, this plasmon action explains why the reaction is heat-dependant. Plasmon energy levels are the product of the size of the plasmon, and the heat of the individual participating members.

Pumping up protons to the point that they can only penetrate partway through the electron cloud of target atoms will result in radiation emissions as the proton disrupts the deep shells. As temperature increases and proton energy passes the absorption threshold these emissions will cease. What this means is that there are several discrete “emission windows” as the reactor is brought up to operational temperatures. These emissions can be mitigated, or even capitalized on, by careful material selection and a strict initiation protocol.

Finally – any nickel will do. As long as it is powdered form and heat treated for embrittlement. I suggest heat under vacuum, then flush with hydrogen to quench. Repeat. This will achieve the molecular beta phase, the microfractures for porosity, elimination of contaminant gases, AND hydrogen saturation for pre-loading. Catalytic Nickel sponges are overkill. They are formed for molecular scale filtration, and we are talking about hydrogen atoms! They leak through on their own. You just want to fracture the grains by flash quenching so that under a microscope they look like dandelion puffs = maximum surface area.

In the end, this ain’t rocket science. All it takes is a little reading and a few days of staring at a blank wall while you let your brain fit it all together. The physics are simple. It is the Engineering that is tricky! Materials have limitations that do not show up in equations!!!

  • Thomas Kaminski

    Thanks for the link Steve. I completely missed (or forgot) the original material. I almost missed your response here, too.

    So, now that Rossi has gone from planar disks to tubular in the ecat-X, I wonder how it will be automated? It is hard to diffuse, etc. down a thin tube.

  • ScienceFan

    Given that you seem to understand the field so well, you aught to try some experiments to see what kind of results you can achieve.

  • Zephir

    /* I would humbly explain that he is talking about a form of plasmon structure */

    Actually it’s polariton wave, plasmons are surface waves. The train analogy is otherwise correct – the railway cars can collide quite slowly, nevertheless due to their high number and inertia, their mutual compression at some place can get significant. The long line of atoms serves as a piston or impactor there.

    • Chapman

      Got it. Subtle point, but an important difference!

      I have to tell you, I am really intrigued with your entire premise based on low velocity forces. It is easy to fall into the trap of visualizing high speed particles when the issue of High Energy is the topic, but nature LOVES slow, but overwhelming forces. Look at how stone and concrete are shattered by moisture freezing in cracks and expanding. Seemingly solid stone can turn to gravel. This is equivalent to GiveADogABone talking about hydrogen embrittlement. Trapped hydrogen has a tendency to recombine to H2 in microcavities and cause severe fracturing and material degradation. Again, it is nature creating small, non-violent forces that have massive local energy.

      It brings to mind trying to replace bushings in an automotive suspension system. You can buy the bushings at an auto parts store and try to pound them in with a sledge hammer, but the proper way to install them is with a hydraulic press. The slow, but un-resistable force achieves what the chaotic hammering seldom does neatly…

  • Engineer48

    To help to understand the different stages of Ni hydrogenation or the creation of beta stage Nickel Hydride I have modified this diagram to add state c1 that shows the H2 hammering the alpha stage surface H atoms into the Ni lattice to create beta stage Nickel Hydride that we need to create hydrogenated Ni.
    .

    • gameover

      I have not seen replicators taking advantage of this hammer.

      • Engineer48

        Hi GameOver,

        No hammer, no H inside the lattice.

        Plus there are “things” that can be done on the surface adsorbed H atoms to make them H+ and H- pairs BEFORE the hammer into the lattice happens.
        .

    • GiveADogABone

      Having read this on Wikipedia, I am not convinced that the beta Nickel Hydride hypothesis is viable :-

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nickel_hydride
      A true crystallographically distinct phase of nickel hydride can be produced with high pressure hydrogen gas at 600 MPa.

      I have also read somewhere that protons (without the electron) do not have a problem penetrating the surface. I guess they are simply smaller.

      • gameover

        A very well known problem. Bulk nickel does not absorb very much hydrogen at all at ambient pressure. Any apparentely high loading may be fictitious and actually caused by hydrogen filling new cavities forming in the metal for example due to embrittlement.

        • GiveADogABone

          I reckon Johnson Matthey know the answer to this one. They sell hydrogenated Nickel catalysts. They have to be stored in water to stop them undergoing spontaneous combustion in air. The more interesting point is that after use in a process they contain enough Hydrogen to still be combustible. That means the cavities would have been charging Hydrogen for at least the duration of the process use and they cannot leak.

          I would be really curious about whether used Nickel catalyst would perform well as E-cat fuel.

          • gameover

            Probably yes. From my understanding Holmlid also has better results with used (not spent) K:Fe2O3 catalysts.

        • Engineer48

          Hi GameOver,

          I agree but it seems there needs to be H atoms/ions absorbed inside the Ni lattice for the reaction to trigger.

          IE as per Piantelli nice diagram:
          .

          • GiveADogABone

            Not so much in the lattice as in the cavities would be my view. It would take a fair amount of time to pressurize the cavities.

      • Engineer48

        Hi GiveADogABone,

        From my currently limited understanding there are more phases than the 1st 2 alpha and beta stage.

        From Focardi’s data, it is clear the H is going somewhere as the H2 pressure drops during successful loading. While Focardi discloses the pressure, he doesn’t quote the temperature, which also applies to Piantelli.
        .

        • gameover

          Focardi&Piantelli also used electrodeposition (galvanic bath) and acid etching to alter the surface of their bars.

          • Engineer48

            Hi GameOver,

            As per their paper:

            In order to compare samples having the same surface but different bulks, the metal rods used in the experiments described here (stainless steel for cell A and nickel for cell B) were coated with a thick (0.1 mm) nickel layer by the usual nickel-plating bath [7] containing the following components: Nickel Ammonium Sulphate, Citric Acid, Ammonium Hydroxide, Sodium Disulfite (purity RPE-ACS).

            After introduction in the cells, the rods were annealed under vacuum (p < 10-4 mbar) at temperatures up to about 900 K in order to clean their surfaces [8, 9].

            Successive thermal cycles were also performed in a hydrogen atmosphere below 1 bar.

          • gameover

            1996
            “Evidence for Nuclear Reactions in Ni-H Systems I: Heat Excess Measurements”

            http://i.imgur.com/x6qJozS.png

            1998
            “Large excess heat production in Ni-H systems”

            http://i.imgur.com/Aalp2Yd.png

    • GiveADogABone

      http://mragheb.com/NPRE%20498ES%20Energy%20Storage%20Systems/Metal%20Hydrides%20Alloys%20for%20Hydrogen%20Storage.pdf
      Well worth a look. The effective Nickel storage systems for Hydrogen seem to be based on alloys and complex hydrides, rather than pure Nickel. The pure Nickel seems to have low Hydrogen absorption. Raney Nickel seems to be able to pack the Hydrogen in, so what is the difference?

      • Engineer48

        Hi GiveADogABone,

        As the Raney Ni has a NI surface area of over 100m^2/g, that is a lot of alpha phase adsorbed H atoms/ions on the surface ready to engage in chemical reactions.

        It may not be processed to have a lot of beta phase absorbed H atoms/ions as required for LENR.
        .

        • GiveADogABone

          If forming beta phase needs 600bar H2 pressure, I cannot see how any forms.

          • Mats002

            Very local in some scattered places maybe? What is the probability for that?

  • Engineer48

    Hi Chapman,

    My focus is figuring out Focardi and Piantelli hydrogenated their Ni.

    The process to do this is very cloudy and until it is sorted there will be no reliable reactor DIYs happening.

    In that goal Hank Mills is in agreement and we are discussing and exchanging papers talking about the alpha and beta phase of Nickel Hydride creation and what may stop either phase happening.

    Alpha phase is about populating the Ni surface with dissociated H atoms or ions.

    Beta phase is about using non adsorbed H2 molecules to POUND the H whatever into the lattice. As there are many theories about what is needed to be pounded into the Ni lattice, my focus is to gather existing industry knowledge about how to achieve 1st alpha phase and then beta phase to achieve a well hydrogenated Ni with lots of H or H ions inside the lattice.

    Until we understand how to achieve the beta phase hydrogenation of Ni, as Focardi and Piantelli did, talking about things that may or may not happen later is maybe just a bit premature.

    To illustrate alpha phase is after the H2 dissociates and is adsorbed (held) by the Ni surface. Beta phase is when those Ni surface adsorbed H atoms or H ions are pounded into the lattice.

    As far as I understand the process, no beta phase H atoms or H ions inside the Ni lattice = NO LENR REACTION.

    So lets pool our brain power and work out how to achieve a high degree of beta phase in the Ni on our reactors?
    . https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/c6f525d3ffe0a76610e410561a768dde365fea533566743123081497920a0c78.jpg
    .
    https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/f921ec5ef95b0b9cb51c045c1c63638f994dbf79edd113329b0e7e03e40f8488.jpg

    • Chapman

      By the way Engineer,

      I think Zephir gave me a plausible mechanism for a natural shielding effect that may logically explain how hydrogen can penetrate all the way down to the point when it breaches the lowest electron shell. And you know what? It would result in the proton being ejected at somewhere around 90% or so of the total coulomb potential, which would put Piantelli’s numbers right in the right neighborhood.

      I do not know if it is a correct answer, but just as with the claim that the operation of the 1-year test plant was impossible in the allotted space, it only takes a single PLAUSIBLE solution to prove it IS POSSIBLE.

      I am taking the idea apart to see if I can find a flaw, but the bottom line is that if those numbers are real, then there is a BIG advantage to working our way back up to Platinum, and other transitional metals higher up the periodic table.

      But I know what you are going to say… Carts before horses, right? The hydrogen saturation issue needs to be solved before anyone can even THINK about alternatives and enhancements.

      So our roadmap right now is:

      1. Solve the hydrogen loading problem
      2. Exactly replicate the existing e-cat model to prove the theory and establish a duplication friendly experimenter platform.
      3. Play around tweaking individual parameters ONE AT A TIME!!!

      • Engineer48

        Hi Chapman,

        Yup.

        Keep it KISS baby and only play with one parameter at a time to start building a solid base to build higher from.

  • georgehants

    Who or what is stopping the ERV report from being published, now?

  • Zephir

    Hi Chapman, thank You for your support. Regarding the copy&paste, I’m also doing it often – just link the source as it’s common netiquette and you don’t have to feel like the Jack Sparrow.

  • Zephir

    Thank You for your support. Regarding the copy&paste, I’m also doing it often – just link the source as it’s common by the netiquette and you don’t have to feel like the Jack Sparrow.

  • sam

    A.R studying C.F. etc and looking at a jail house wall for many years.
    Then studying.Engineering,and testing the Ecat and looking at lab walls for years.
    And people think he did all that to try and commit a fraud.
    Seems more impossible than the
    impossible invention.

    • Chapman

      Too True…

      Aside from any understanding, and faith in, the physics involved, it is the fact that Rossi DID spend those years in prison which convinces me that he is legit.

      I simply do not believe he would risk going back. Some white-collar twit might get caught up in a fraud case that slowly evolves from a minor indiscretion to a major theft, because he does not know the reality of the HELL that will be awaiting him upon discovery. Rossi has first hand experience. There is no way he has spent the last five years working on a “Big Payoff Con”. He is an intelligent man, and there are other, better ways to make money for a guy with brains. Plus – the 10mil would have secured retirement! He could have stopped right there, given them all the IP and laughed as he walked away to board a plane to the Bahamas. IH validated the tech and built their own units and bragged about their operation, so they would have had no legal standing to come back on him for it being a dud. But he did not. He went forward to try to get to marketing and distribution.

      I think it was IH foot dragging and delaying the roll out or further action that led Rossi to force the 1 year test in the first place. IH could have probably helped him start a factory and begin building units and the 89 million 1 year test would have just been put off indefinitely, but since Darden was making NO movement to manufacture and develop, Rossi pushed for the test in order to get things moving…

      • Mats002

        Sounds plausible.

  • GiveADogABone

    Define machine :
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Machine
    ‘A machine is a tool containing one or more parts that uses energy to perform an intended action.’
    [following the definition, a helpful sentence]
    ‘Machines are usually powered by mechanical, chemical, THERMAL, or ELECTRICAL means, …’

    The essence of a machine is to use energy(in all its forms) for a defined purpose.
    —————————————-

    http://www.e-catworld.com/2012/09/24/summary-of-citta-del-capo-radio-metropolitana-interview-with-andrea-rossi/
    Part 2 – The Theory
    The main effect is the thermalization of low-energy Gamma (50-120 keV).
    The transmutation of Nickel into Copper is a side effect.
    —————————————-

    The cavity magnetron outputs microwaves using the interaction of a stream of electrons with a magnetic field while moving past a series of open metal cavities (cavity resonators)

    So you need an oscillator that produces ‘low-energy Gamma (50-120 keV)’.
    What oscillator would do that?
    Free Electron Laser Oscillator (FELO) – An FELO for hard X-Rays
    https://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/Hamburg2016/Hamburglectures/KimXEFLO.pdf
    A low-gain device with a low-loss x-ray cavity

    Where have we got cavities in the Nickel that could oscillate?
    We have just been discussing that. The cavities in the Nickel generated by very high pressure H2 and close to the Nickel surface where EMF stimulation will work. The cavities absorb some of their own heat output to keep the Nickel and Hydrogen atoms/molecules vibrating as the cavities emit energy as radiation.

    A resonant cavity is a MACHINE. It uses heat and EMF stimulation to output 50-120keV radiation. Energy inputs and outputs defined.

  • Fedir Mykhaylov

    Even without the blender to me really like the micro accelerator hypothesis LENR

  • Bob Greenyer

    I just wanted to get the 3 main things out before going to Aarhus

    1. That we have a shot at showing if a particular theory is correct

    2. That practically all successful tech seams to have LWFM in play – and that it has been known to be critical for many years with Celani, Iraj and Iwamura being leaders. Holmlid has recently observed Muons but attributes them to nuclear spallation – despite using the LWFM and transition metal (K and Fe in this case)

    3. My speculation that Muons, Muonium, Muonium- and muonic atoms may be at play (in a similar way to Piantelli’s H- but more accepted as a MO to make fusion)

    4. That the e-Cat X is a HV discharge through sapphire.

    5. That HV Sapphire makes muonium and potentially muonium- as shown by canadian research

    6. That that is why I suggested 3 phases may play a role in Hot Cat and my previous informed speculation HV discharge in E-Cat X and that Rossi may not know how it works

    7. That recent patent by Clean planet says effectively “heavy electron’ every few paragraphs, saying that the nano structures help it… but does not say muon

    8. That subsequent to ALL this and with a priority date before E-CatX was mentioned by Rossi, the German patent is doing a Dielectric Barrier Discharge DBD through Al2O3 (what sapphire and hotcats are made from) without giving a reason and there is no indication that they know how it may enhance the effect.

    IF the ECat-X is functioning like this, there is no indication Rossi knows that. It would allow for pulsed HV DBD through sapphire capillary – a muonic (even muonium- with the LWFM increasing production of H- and u-) based accelerated effect could result in light,back emf and direct electricity.

  • Bob Greenyer

    These are the images I wanted to share during the presentation

  • Bob Greenyer

    specifically, using 18O which via proton neutron knockout reaction results in 18F that decays via positron emission in 109minutes to 18O (gets recycled) we have it in the form of Al2 18O3.

    If there are slow neutrons – and they interact, we get 19O which decays with a much shorter half life and much higher energy photon (gamma) to stable 19F

  • Frank Acland

    Live video presentation by Bob Greenyer now: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2XxZkmpuJao&feature=youtu.be

    • Ciaranjay

      Wow, a door opens. Very interesting. Thanks for sharing Bob.

      • Bob Greenyer

        A pleasure – I said that if I could not get Part 2 of the video out before Aarhus, then I would do a Live hangout to make the information public.

    • Thomas Kaminski

      Interesting presentation — I look forward to the edited video for part 2.

      This stimulates a lot of possibilities. The semiconductor industry has used wafer-thin sapphire for processing various high-speed devices and sensors. What if you could build up a microstructure of layers of materials using the same or similar processes that the semidconductor industry uses? Perhaps the H2 loading could be done with ion inplantations (h+ ions, for example). If the structure is important for the LENR reaction, this might be a way to build nano-layered devices that enhance LENR.

  • Bob Greenyer

    Anyone about for a Live Google hangout in 30 mins?

    • georgehants

      Morning Bob, that sounds a little to risque for me.

      • Bob Greenyer

        You can just watch!

    • Engineer48

      Hi Bob,

      Never done one. How to do?
      .

  • Engineer48

    Here Focardi reveals something that many replicators may not be doing.

    Operating the reactor below atmospheric pressure (400-800mbar). Piantelli also mentions this.

    http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/FocardiSlargeexces.pdf

  • Engineer48

    Hi WizKid,

    And your success to date has been?

    I’m doing research and sharing what I find. When that process has completed I’ll build.
    .

    • wizkid

      You “research” and “share” and “aspire”. Way to go!

      Like many others, I am retired now, and really haven’t achieved anything significant in my lifetime, but there is love in my life.

      In order of importance:
      Personal relationship with God.
      Ordained minister. Preacher.
      Husband of loving wife for 42 years.
      Five grandchildren.

      Other trivia:
      Conversion of a 1969 Fiat sport coupe to electric plug in that achieved 42 mph in 1978. Designed and built an electromagnetic “dark energy” system with 1.6 COP (videotaped … circa 2010) Defeated a large restaurant franchise that tried to steal my software IP. (2011) Built ageothermal HVAC home (2002)

      I also tinker with experiments in cold fusion, because it is fun to do. I do not claim behind a pseudo name to be an “engineer” or anything other than a cranky old grandpa that tries to enjoy life and is interested in alternative energy sources.

      Cheers

  • Engineer48

    Thanks to Hank Mills this is a very good paper to understand the processes involved in H atoms ending up inside the Ni lattice:

    http://cdn.intechweb.org/pdfs/21876.pdf

    The paper has a very clear image of the 4 steps involved as attached.
    .

    • Kevmo ✓ᵀʳᵘᵐᵖ

      Note that the H2 molecule splits into individual H1 atoms, which Focardi said was the main contribution that Rossi brought to the table.

      • Engineer48

        Hi Kevmo,

        That Ni dissociates H2 on the surface and the 2 x dissociated H atoms are adsorbed to the surface of the NI is known a LONG time ago.

        It is called alpha phase of the creation of NIckel Hydride.
        .

        • Kevmo ✓ᵀʳᵘᵐᵖ

          And catalyzing that reaction is what Rossi initially brought to the table.

  • Engineer48

    Hi Chapman,

    In his latest patent.
    .

  • Engineer48

    Hi Andy,

    I pointed out a few statements Chapman that were not supported by the literature. One such was his statement about how Piantelli established the 6.7MeV of the ejected proton.
    Chapman suggested Piantelli has assumed the value. I stated Piantelli had measured the value as attached.
    .

  • Gerard McEk

    I Do not think that you can say that anhilation of a neutron is a fusion, I believe you only talk about fusion if the proton number increases. After the absorbsion of the neutron uranium splits: that’s fission. I still think we have to do with both fission and fusion as GiveADigABone says above. The decay mechanism due to the weak force may also play a role in the transmutations. I still give Widom-Larson’s theory where, very slow neutrons initiate these transmutation chains, may play a role in LENR.