Inside an LENR Reactor, Improving Outcomes for Replicators (Alan Smith)

The following post has been submitted by Alan Smith, an independent LENR researcher based in London.

Alan Smith. February 2016


‘Dusty plasmas’ (DPs) are described and discussed in the contemporary context of LENR systems, with a look at the history of their study which embraces both terrestrial and cosmological examples.

Langmuir in the 1920’s first reported his observation of the creation of dusty Tungsten plasma in a discharge tube containing inert gas. Langmuir’s suspicion at the time that DPs would capture the interest of physicists was eventually proven to be correct. There was exponential growth in journal publications about DPs between 1981 and 2003/4, since when they have continued to appear in healthy numbers. This is because studies of fast ions with high energies compared to ‘background’ plasma ions play a key role in the investigation of both deep space plasmas and in controlled fusion research.

The potential similarities between the inner environment of a working LENR reactor and the hot, dusty, and highly energetic plasmas found in the atmospheres of Brown Dwarf stars, our sun, and the planet Saturn are described, with a view to considering the electromagnetic approach to LENR, with the aim of enhancing the outcomes of current replication attempts.

Full article at this link:

  • Dave Lawton

    You may find this of interest.
    The Moller’s Atomic Hydrogen Generator (MAHG) is fully based on the Irving Langmuir

    • Alan Smith

      Thank you Dave. your link led me to Moller’s account of Langmuir’s work at GE. Fascinating stuff. Might I ask if you are still experimenting? I seem to recall you posted some pictures of a test rig on FB awhile back. You might be interested in visiting my lab near London, always good to have a natter – let me know if so.

  • clovis ray

    Thanks,Alan. good stuff,although i’m not sure how ,plasmonics works in this field, so i will study, study study, or just listen to your lecture lol.

  • Stephen

    Thanks Alan for this very interesting and nicely presented paper. I’m enjoying reading it. It’s an intresting history of space plasma physics and intresting ideas.

    It’s a long time since I touched on Space Plasmas in college and I have forgotten much of it unfortunately. It was a real pleasure to read something about it again and especially reflect on how it may relate to LENR.

    I wonder if the plasma frequency can be important and/or if it relates in some relevant way to the Debye length in these contexts. I think I read somewhere that EM radiation at frequencies below the Plasma frequency become evanascent. I wonder if this occurs if they can couple or resonate in someway with ions and particles in the near field. Are there places or materials where the plasma frequency would be at X-Ray or gamma frequencies? Maybe you or another a good plasma physicist would know?

    • Alan Smith

      Hi Stephen.
      While flattered by your describing me as a plasma physicist, I must confess I am only an engineer with a serious interest in science. LENR (i have noticed) tends to attract scientists who want – or need- to be engineers. But contrary as ever I have gone the other way.
      To attempt to answer your question, first of all we are dealing with a ‘bound’ plasma, rather than a stellar one constrained only by charge and gravitation. The innerspace of our hypothetical reactor is one where gravity is truly a weak force, so we might be permitted to ignore it.
      B and E` fields dominate the reactor space, and provide the fundamental plasma oscillation frequency, but there is another key factor – the Infra-Red/Visible light created by all that heat. ‘Creatures of Light’ as Fulviani said.
      The harmonics caused by these 3 factors (B,E, IR) interacting I suspect give rise to ‘localised surface plasmons’ (LSP) – collective electron charge oscillations in the nano-nickel particles in the fuel. This plasmon/electron field is highly localized at the nanoparticle and decays rapidly away from the nanoparticle/dieletric interface.
      Coaxing these LSP’s into resonance is I suspect the magic trick. But also a topic for another paper.

      • Stephen

        Hi Alan thanks for your reply, I like your ideas. I am looking forward to seeing Fulviani’s ‘Creatures of Light’ some day. I can understand what draws you to LENR. I started in physics but ended up an engineer. I think LENR naturally attract people who are interested in the interfaces between different technologies and sciences. It touches on so many aspects from chemistry to physics to engineering, Mechanical, electrical and nuclear as well as both macro and nano materials, structures and plasmonics and details to nuclear structure and even possibly behaviour and characteristics of nucleons. Its multidisciplinary and seams to me to have much to do with specific sets of conditions within the interfaces between these fields of knowledge.

        Good luck with your work Alan its great to see another Brit working on LENR.

  • Gerard McEk

    Thank you for this very interesting essay, Alan! A lot of new stuff for me to consider.
    You must be aware that Irving Langmuir already in 1909 discovered LENR: He found that while having a plasma between two tungsten electrodes in a hydrogen atmosphere, more heat was generated than what was expected by the electrical energy input. Nils Bohr convinced him not to publish this because it was against the energy conservation law. (Nuclear energy was not invented then). I wasn’t aware of Irving’s dusty plasma past, though.

    I still think that also currents through the metal powder must be considered as well, although I do admit that magnetic fields may play a crucial role. When currents run through the powder, locally very high current densities may occur, accompanied by strong, very local magnetic fields. I can imagine that at some locations only a single particle may lead the total current. Maybe also eddy currents in the powder play a role. I believe that above 1000C the AlO2 reactor wall starts to conduct. High voltages (300 – 500 V) between the three heating coils will also conduct currents through aluminia tube into the fuel and may cause the LENR effects. I would advocate for high voltages and high short 1-50 usec) current pulses.

    But let us know what the results of your tests are Alan, I wish you all the luck!

    • Alan Smith

      Hi Gerald. Thank you for your kind words. TBH I didn’t know that Langmuir had seen LENR events, though reading more about the area of his work it doesn’t surprise me greatly.
      Eddy current effects are not generally seen in small masses- because they depend on one part of a conductor being in a stronger field than the other -thus causing a current to flow from the point of strongest B field to the weakest. I think our powders are too small for that to be a big effect. Are you planning to test with actual electrodes in the fuel? Would be interesting, it is my own view that E-Cat X must have something like that for Rossi to be able to claim electricity generation.

      • Warthog

        Langmuir was one of the premier experimental scientists of all time. The Nobel committee at first couldn’t decide whether to give him the prize for physics or for chemistry, but eventually decided on chemistry.

      • Gerard McEk

        Hi Alan, although I would love to, I do not have a lab like you have nor a barn, where I could do tests. In earlier times I worked in a very modern and well-equipped lab and I had all the facilities I wanted. When I would start doing tests like these, I would want to do the things in a way that I was used to. The three phase converter would be one of the things I would want to have, but of course also all the other stuff to make the things in a proper way. My company moved me away from that and have other people doing it. I still think R&D, but doing it myself slipped away.

  • psi2u2

    Terrific theory! Alan, are you aware of the electric universe theorists, as they have done a lot with plasmas and in some ways are an outgrowth and a spin-off of from plasma physics? They are not considered credible by the vast majority of PhD cosmologists and astrophysicists. To what extent this prejudice is justified I am not entirely qualified to comment, but I have a feeling the electric universe people may be more right than wrong about a lot of things. In any case, although it may not be strategic to make any overt connection between your work and these theories, you may find it useful to examine the question of to what extent they are congruent with what you are proposing about DPs and LENR.

    Good luck! is the best website on this question, and has extensive message boards.

    • Alan Smith

      Hi. I bumped up against the Electric Universe theorists several times while researching for this essay. Interesting stuff, though it is against my principles to absorb more than one dose of disreputable science at a sitting. Tx for the holoscience link- I will go check it out.

      • psi2u2

        Just wanted to make sure you were aware of it and the possible cross-relevance.

  • Dr. Mike

    I agree with your conclusion that waveform used to heat an LENR reactor is a key factor in achieving a positive result. Since the Lugano authors did not look inside the power supply boxes provided by Rossi, it is possible that the Lugano reactor also was supplied with some higher frequency pulses than could not be measured by the power meter. The effect of the electrical waveform used to heat the reactor should be included as a part of every LENR experiment.
    Dr. Mike

    • Warthog

      IIRC, the waveform of the electricity fed to the E-Cat was measured in one of the very earliest of the Rossi demonstrations, and perhaps the very first. I don’t think it was mentioned in any of the texts, but a photo of apparatus showed an oscilloscope among the measuring devices.

      • Stephen Taylor

        Anything we can find regarding Rossi’s waveform could be essential information. If you can find any hints from the aforementioned photo, video or documents a link to same would be greatly appreciated. Always fun to go back and look at the early Rossi/Focardi demo’s. Thanks.