LENR through monopoles (Axil Axil)

The following post has been submitted by Axil Axil

All the various and sundry miracles of LENR are a direct fallout of the behavior of the Exotic Neutral Particle (ENP) that is the causative factor in LENR and the monopole magnetic field that it generates. This special type of magnetism has been a study and an obsession of science for over a century. Many main stream scientific theories are incomplete because these theories require that monopoles must exist. Therefore, much experimental effort has been expended in science to find these monopoles. The monopole is fundamental to the consistency of string theory. Joseph Polchinski, a string-theorist, described the existence of monopoles as “one of the safest bets that one can make about physics not yet seen.”

Theory requires the monopole to be the electric charge’s magnetic cousin, but unlike the positive or negative charges of the electric field, north or south poles of the magnetic field always occur together in what’s called a dipole. A lone north or south pole simply doesn’t show up in the real world. Even if you take a bar magnet and cut it in half down the middle, you won’t get a separate north and south pole, but two new but smaller dipole magnets instead.

Physicists love symmetry: for symmetry-minded theorists, however, it’s required that there should be a magnetic equivalent of charge. String theories and grand unified theories rely on existence of the monopole, and its absence undermines the mathematical feng-shui of the otherwise elegant Maxwell’s equations that govern the behavior of electricity and magnetism. What’s more, the existence of a magnetic monopole would explain another mystery of physics: why charge is quantized; that is, why it only seems to come in tidy packets of about 1.602×10–19 coulombs, the charge of an electron or proton.

From the derivation of the Dirac equations, a quantity known as the Dirac quantization condition must exist. The hypothetical existence of a magnetic monopole would imply that the electric charge must be quantized in certain units; also, the existence of the electric charges implies that the magnetic charges of the hypothetical magnetic monopoles, if they exist, must be quantized in units inversely proportional to the elementary electric charge.

For many decades, scientists have kept a sharp eye out for the required monopole, but perhaps they were looking in the wrong place and in the wrong ways. “They were literally hoping it would fall from sky,” Zhang says as a product of cosmic rays. The notion isn’t as far-fetched as it seems—our world is constantly bombarded by weird particles showering from far-off cosmic events, and magnetic monopoles could very well show up as part of that rain. Some enterprising physicists installed loops of superconducting material on their rooftops. If anything remotely like a magnetic monopole fell through, the loops, being sensitive to magnetic fluctuations, would register it.

But in these modern times and more than 30 years of searching, science has not been able to conclusively detect this particle. But once in a great while, their meters detect something that could be a monopole.

Accelerator experiments at CERN have been no more successful, leading scientists believe existing monopoles must be far too heavy to create in even the Large Hadron Collider. The monopole is projected to be extremely heavy, too massive for any accelerator to create.

Interestingly, Zhang’s magnetic monopole didn’t fall from the heavens; instead, it was leading a quiet life on the other side of a mirror, but a mirror made of a very special type of alloy. What’s more, says Zhang, the math to prove the effect is very clear. “You could give the last part of the mathematical derivation as a final exam in a junior or senior year undergraduate physics class.”

“Exotic particles such as the magnetic monopole, dyon, anyon, and the axion have played fundamental roles in our theoretical understanding of quantum physics,” Zhang writes in one of his papers. “Experimental observation of these exotic particles in table-top condensed matter systems could finally reveal their deep mysteries.” The generation of Quasiparticles in condensed matter physics could provide a new experimental outlet for high-energy physicists. “You don’t have to look towards the cosmos,” Zhang says. “I think we’ll see more of the beautiful mathematical structures of high-energy physics become realized in condensed matter physics.”

I believe that these monopole quasiparticles are being produced in in condensed matter systems. There is a major branch of LENR theoretical thought that embraces the monopole as causative in the LENR reaction. The behavior of matter under the influence of a monopole magnetic field opens up a strange new world of quantum interactions.

Like Qi, the LENR monopole rides the wind and scatters, but is retained when encountering water. The matter under the influence of a monopole field obeys different quantum rules than ordinary magnetic fields. This new type of undeveloped and extremely complex quantum science is called Nonassociative Quantum Mechanics. The miracles of LENR are derived from and are a result of the behavior of these types of new quantum interaction.

LENR experimentalists can provide theoretical common grounds with orthodox physics by showing that the active LENR agent is a monopole. This can be done by using the various devices invented over these past decades by orthodox science to detect primary particle unitary monopoles. These devices will describe the properties of these monopole quasiparticles produced by condensed matter physics such as their mass, kinetic energy and half-life.

How can this be done? Monopoles have been detected in experiments involving exploding titanium foil and the Proton 21 experiments. Other candidate monopole based LENR experiments are the poly-neutron and Erzion experiments and a monopole detector could show that these exploding foils produce monopoles. More generally, Keith Fredericks has detected monopole like tracks produced in photoemissions coming from every class of LENR experiment. The Holmlid experiments are a prime candidate for monopole production.

The Rossi type reactor is at the top of the list as a monopole source.
One apparatus for monopole detection is described in the following:

A Magnetic Monopole Detector with Sensitivity to Extremely Small Magnetic Charge


There is the superconductor loop method used by Blas Cabrera


This superconductor based experiment may not be that difficult to carry out. The accumulated magnetic charge of the LENR type monopole might be so massive as amplified by LENR nano-engineering that superconductivity might not be required to detect the passage of the monopole through the coil.

There is another tool that can be used to characterize magnetic behavior in LENR. Rossi as well as his replicators can explore the magnetic fields that are produced by the E-Cat by using the Faraday Effect


In a how to do it example as follows:


The use of Rydberg matter is a major subject in LRNR at this current juncture.

But the magic in Rydberg matter is not in the molecules themselves but how the molecules reformate EMF input to produce magnetic monopoles. The graphite like staking of long stings of hexagon shaped plates produces EMF monopole magnetic projections. Water crystals have the same string like structure of stacked graphite like plates and produce the same LENR results even though these water molecules feature both oxygen and hydrogen. These water crystals are the active agents in the production of analog monopoles in cavitation.


Making Monopoles in the Lab

This is a good find. The method to produce an analog magnetic monopole is to get all the spins of the members of the condensate to point in the same direction and overlap. The Surface Plasmon Polariton is such a quantum spin liquid that forms a spin condensate where all the spins of the polaritons overlap. This SPP produces a monopole magnetic field in simulation of a fundamental unitary monopole.

Dualism in physics says that two apparently dissimilar things actually behave in the same way. For example, there is a dualism between the nuclear processes inside a star and the processes inside a deuterium pellet imploding under the compressive force of a burst from a huge laser. Even if the star is huge and the pellet is small, this difference in size does not impact the behavior of the two apparently disparate systems. If such a dualism shared between these two cases exists, the laws that govern the essential behavior of the star and the pellet star also apply to the processes of interest going on inside the crushed and compressed deuterium pellet.

The dualism between a analogue magnetic monopole and the fundamental unitary monopole says that the two systems behave in the same way and obey the same mathematical formulations.

This property of dualism requires that the predictions that come out of string theory will also apply to the analog monopoles produce in LENR.

Axil Axil

  • Axil Axil


    On slide 20 titled
    Copper Wire LeClair Effect Cavitation ZPE Laser Experiments
    July 25, 2008

    An Exotic Neutral Particle plowed through 2 meters of copper while it clung to the surface of the wire, The energy required to do the vaporization of this amount of copper is huge.

    On slide 15 titled
    The water crystal

    This slide shows the Rydberg matter type hexagonal plated shaped graphite layered structure that produces monopoles in cavitation.
    Many slides show transmutation of every element in existence including the heaviest transuranic elements. LENR can produce power concentrations equal to a supernova.

  • Axil Axil

    There is a nanoplasmonic experiment that uses a laser to illuminate a U232 uranium salt dissolved in water containing gold nanoparticles suspended in solution. U232 is hellish stuff that is deadly. It used in thorium reactors to make U233 proliferation proof.

    The laser and gold nanoparticle combo reduced the half life of U232 from 69 years to 6 microseconds. Moreover, It may to possible to remove U232 from U233 thus making U233 bomb capable. When I spoke of this on the Energy from thorium discussion forum, I was band from the website.

    All mining of uranium and thorium might need to be band from the world right now. That or outlaw lasers.

  • Jouni Tuomela
    • Stephen Taylor

      Very interesting, thanks Jouni. From the article:

      “topological point defect, resembles…magnetic monopole particle as described in grand unified theories of particle physics.”

      “It is important to understand the structure of monopoles and other topological entities because they… appear in the models of the early universe and affect the properties of many different materials, such as metals.”

  • Stephen Taylor

    Axil, thank you for this richly interesting post. The monopole reminds me of the behavior of a ground mounted radio frequency antenna. There are many symmetrical resonances stimulated in my simple mind by this analogy.
    The ground mounted (ground plane) vertical RF antenna radiates energy from the above ground portion and uses the Earth ground as the bottom half of the dipole system. I was always interested in tuning both the top and bottom halves of the radiator and pondered what was happening in that mostly ignored hugely important mostly invisible bottom half.
    I wonder what space the missing half of your monopole lives in and how will we find it and learn much from its discovery in our universe.
    I continue reading and pondering your excellent post.

  • Gerard McEk

    Would superconductivity also be a manifestation of the monopole?

    • Axil Axil

      The Bose condensate is superconducting and monopoles always form a condensate. The quarks which are monopoles will produce superconductivity inside the proton, neutron, etc. This monopole based superconductivity is what produces the strong force. But the superconductivity seen in metal oxide based material is due to oxygen radicals according to the latest thinking on the subject.

      • Zack Iszard

        Molecular Orbital trickery is almost certainly behind the very low temperature YCBO and contemporary “high temperature superconductors” (HTCSs). However, this is an emergent “behavior” of the particular molecular orbital system that exists in the luckiest crystal configurations of elements that comprise the known list of HTSCs. The same fundamental assumption, that a particular lattice configuration enables the emergence of quasiparticles that tend towards degeneracy, quite obviously applies to LENR. This is probably the most convenient way to explain how very large energetic magnitudes of catalysis are occurring in a repeatable and statistically frequent way. Whatever these quasiparticle systems are doing, they are literally bridging the energy gap between nuclear (strong) and chemical/electronic (EM), and this obviously requires the invocation of a unified force theory to fully describe.

        If it is true, as you say Axil, that monopoles always form a condensate, then a system which generates quasiparticle monopoles repeatably must necessarily show that, as you describe in the post, a macro-monopole can be made by condensation of many isolated monopoles. The exact scale of course is of great concern: a large enough macro-monopole may combine enough energy from enough individual cluster excitations that its sum energy can apply a magnetic force of (strong) nuclear magnitude.

        It is here that this very energetic monopole forces the otherwise unfavorable magnetic-spin-based nuclear transitions to become selection-allowed – and therefore statistically likely. This reasonably could function as the means of catalysis which enables LENR on a frequency to become significant in the release of nuclear potential energy. Local monopole magnetic force interferes with the allowed set of nuclear transitions, which in a non-perturbed environment (standard ambient conditions) is an observably very small set!

        Frankly, Axil, the monopole hypothesis is surprisingly easy to rationalize from a quantum thermodynamic perspective. Perhaps I have not given monopoles enough thought from your previous posts about the subject, but it may be the most powerful explanation for LENR yet. If an SPP is a convergent epistemological ‘box’ with ‘the means of formation of persistent monopoles’, then the theory that follows from the info you continue to present is quite a powerful one indeed.

        • Axil Axil

          Regarding the proposition that monopoles always form a condensate:

          There is a dark matter theory that states – if a monopole that is megaparsecs across. Such a structure would totally satisfy the cosmological dark matter requirements that are seen by current cosmological scale observations.

          Giant monopoles as a dark matter candidate

          Dwarf Galaxy Sized Monopoles as Dark Matter?

          The monopole that covers this requirement is the
          ‘t Hooft-Polyakov magnetic monopole. This type of monopole might well be generated in LENR.

          Holmlid believes that space is full of hydrogen rydberg matter. He says that this type of stuff is dark matter. But Holmlid has not yet make the connection between rydberg matter and the monopole. The graphite plate like structure of rydberg matter is topologically Ideal for the production of monopoles. The hydrogen rydberg matter can’t help but wear a coat of EMF that produces monopole magnetic fields in a dark mode.

          Just like in LENR, these nanoparticles absorb EMF and get very heavy with time. And these monopoles have little or no interaction with other EMF. The propensity of these monopoles to form Bose condensates has no limits. They monopoles can produce a condensate as large as a galaxy if the rydberg hydrogen matter is there to support these monopoles. The monopoles provide the rydberg matter that is its hosts it with a cloak of invisibility. The superconductivity that these monopole structures produce give mass to the sequestered EMF through the Higgs field.

          These rydberg matter condensates also produce negative vacuum energy that acts to generate a repulsive gravitational force throughout the universe. This is dark energy.

          This says that LENR as dark matter produces cosmic inflation, and dark energy.

          When science accepts LENR, a new paradigm of discovery at all levels of knowledge from the nanoscale to the cosmological scale will be possible.


    • Gerard McEk

      BTW, why couldn’t a point charge like a proton or an electron not be a monopole at the same time? Maybe these two cannot exist without each other.

    • Zephir

      Nope, but the monopoles can exist inside the boson condensates, where the speed of light gets greatly lowered, so that magnetic vortices can rotate faster, than the EM signal propagating along them – portion of magnetic field gets dragged with vortex and trapped inside it. But the superconductivity has similar mechanism, like the cold fusion: the low-dimensional interaction of multiple electrons along so-called hole stripes. The key of both phenomena is the low-dimensionality of interaction – not the monopole.

  • georgehants

    Physicists investigate unusual form of quantum mechanics
    December 8, 2015 by Lisa Zyga

    • Axil Axil

      The interaction of matter with the monopole magnetic field is not currently well defined in science. IMHO, to built the Lugano Ni62 particle, both energy and neutrons are required to be teleported from the lithium 7 on the surface of the nickel particle to the inside of the particle. This means that the uncertainty principle must be multidimensional as provided by Nonassociative Quantum Mechanics.

      • georgehants

        Axil, cannot comment as this level is outside my league, my interest is in the known Evidence and clear theories of a subject, same with Cold Fusion until a clearer picture is available.
        Well done you guys who can get your heads around this depth of thinking.

        • Axil Axil

          It is not cold fusion. It is nuclear disruption. What the rules are and how the parts of the disrupted matter come together after the fact is still to be determined.

          For example, if you put a stick of TNT in a car and blow it up, how the parts come together in a pile after the fact is not well defined.

          • georgehants

            Sorry, I did not mean it was Cold Fusion, I was simply pointing out that I have little interest in discussions of how Cold Fusion works, as with Monopoles.
            I wait for the Evidence to be found.

            • Axil Axil
              • Zephir

                IMO these jets aren’t evidence of magnetic monopole, but a low dimensional character of lattice collisions (it’s astroblaster effect or Gauss gun principle, which attenuates the collisions of atoms). Why not to admit, you’re able to promote whatever idea as the possible mechanism of cold fusion?

                • Axil Axil

                  What reference does “these jets” refer to? It would be helpful if you quote the reference.

              • f sedei

                Axil: I really enjoy the many articles you provide this website, especially your extensive and professional scientific research.This is the kind of research that will be required for final solution to the LENR phenomenon. But, the extensive evidence you provide in this case involving cold fusion and the hypothetical magnetic particle, Monopole, in my mind is not conclusive evidence.

                • Axil Axil

                  For monopoles: Half-solitons in a polariton quantum fluid behave like magnetic monopoles

                  Note: There is a micro-graph in this research paper on page 4 that shows an actual picture of the monopole magnetic beam coming out of the SPP soliton.


  • Axil Axil

    Recently, I asked John Fisher if he ever saw hourglass tracks in his CR-39 detectors as follows:

    I ran accross why a monopole would produce an hourglass track in CR-39.

    On page 14 figure 8 in: http://lss.fnal.gov/archive/other/dfub-20-94.pdf

    The monopole passing through the CR-39 would leave a stright tract that passed right through the detector. The etching process would produce the hourglass pattern as the developing chemical penetrated from each side of the detection strip.

    John said that he had seen such tracks but interpreted them to be caused by decays of radon as follows:

    “The only double cones I ever saw were short cones pointing toward each other, interpreted as successive decays of radon and radon daughter contamination.”

    • Mats002

      So what did he answer when he heard your interpretation of those tracks?

      • Axil Axil

        John believes that the ENP is the poly-neutron.

        You need to use a CR-39 stack to show monopoles.

        In the following video from CERN, the use of CR-39 is described as their method of detecting magnetic monopoles in their experiment


  • Axil Axil



    “Within a few weeks, Comay developed the appropriate equation. If his equation is correct, then quarks are in fact magnetic monopoles, protons and neutrons are composed of such monopoles, and the Strong Interaction is nothing but a magnetic force. In particular, Comay’s equations explain why an electrically charged electron does not interact with the magnetic monopoles when colliding with a proton or a neutron.

    The similarity between the electric force and the Strong Interaction has already been studied in the late ‘60s by the New-Zealander physicist, Phil Yock. His papers on this subject remained without response. Comay went further and developed the mathematical infrastructure explaining the monopoles’ properties, showing that the Strong Interaction can very well be a magnetic force carried by monopoles.”

    The Color force is based on monopoles. This explains why an electron cannot combine with a proton to form a neutron as per the W&L theory.

    • Pekka Janhunen

      Looked at Comay’s webpage, at paper “Comay’s model at a glance”. I don’t understand how quark confinement would be explained in his monopole model. It would seem to me that if quarks would be just electromagnetic monopoles, one could set one of them free by hitting the baryon hard enough, in the same way as it’s possible to ionise an atom and free an electron from it.

      • Axil Axil

        The way that the EMF force is reduced by distance is different from the way the crono electric force is reduced by distance(it is not reduced by distance )

        • Pekka Janhunen

          But wasn’t his theory that there is no strong force, that quarks are bound by EM force (by its monopole part)? If so, then magnetic monopole force decays the same as Coulomb force. Or did his monopole for quarks refer to some chromodynamic monopole force? If so, then it’s just a different flavour (pun intended) of normal quark model.

  • damn_right _man

    Monopoles exist ? Since when for a significant amount of time ? Axil Axil, what will be Your next post ? LENR because Guacamole needs lemon to not become brown ? LENR due to aquaplaning ? LENR due to cosmical background radiation ?

    • Axil Axil

      The ENP is dark matter and causes dark energy. It keeps galaxies from collapsing and produces accelerated expansion of the universe.

  • Anisoropos

    For someone who condemns the dogmatic nature of institutionalized science you sure like to reference it a lot. Also quarks carry the elementary charge at 1/3e not electrons/protons. Furthermore, most of physics including electrodynamics (Maxwell) does not rely on the assumption of monopoles.

    • damn_right _man

      Axil Axil is simply a dreamer. Forgive him.

      • Zephir

        These is fuzzy boundary between “food for thoughs” and “distraction of focus”. I’m pretty well aware, that the cold fusion has been ignored with physicists, who pretended a better job with their abstract theories (string theory, etc.) for decades. The very same physicists will embrace the cold fusion for their ideas and research, once it finaly turns out, that the cold fusion is safely confirmed fact. They don’t want to research cold fusion and to help the human civilization though – they just want to continue in research their pet theories. The parasites will remain parasites – with cold fusion or without it.

        • Axil Axil

          The assumption in physics is that the monopole was created just after the big bang and has a huge energy level of 10^^16 GeV. In LENR, nano based processes build monopoles from scratch with a lot less energy. But these monopoles are still disruptive of protons and neutrons as seen in Holmlid’s experiments.

          • Zephir

            /* nano based processes build monopoles from scratch with a lot less energy */

            Experimental evidence? Prediction of experimental results? This is what is interesting for me, not the theory itself.

            • Axil Axil

              Nucleon disruption is the generally accepted test of monopole existence wen it interacts with matter. This is seen in Holmlid’s experiments that produce mesons.

        • Pekka Janhunen

          Today the number of scientists is large. Many or most scientists believe that their duty (the conceived best way to help humanity) is to play their own game as well as possible, while letting others play theirs. And “playing one’s game” typically means researching one’s pet theory or own little niche. It’s a bit like how lawyers act in court – the defense lawyer defends because it’s his job, regardless if he believes that his client is guilty or not. It’s the other lawyer’s job to prove him wrong.

          I agree that this system does not sound optimal, and I agree that it may look (at least from the outside) that many scientists are just useless parasites. The problem is that basically, nowadays most scientists do not research problems that matter, and to the extent that they do, they are often not original thinkers but go with the stream. And because most scientist do that kind of “insignificant” work, it has become an accepted social norm among scientists.

          In other words, I recognise the problem and I think I know how we got here, but unfortunately I don’t have a good idea at the moment how to improve the system, given that the number of scientists is large.

          • Zack Iszard

            @ Pekka Janhunen: As a scientist, I take issue with “nowadays most scientists do not research problems that matter”: matter to whom? Just because research focuses don’t blow around in the wind like politicians appealing to the masses doesn’t mean that research into something seemingly inane like the reproductive system of a duck doesn’t somehow add to the sum knowledge of humanity, or our ability to make our world how we like it!

            For example, research into new or improved methods of energy generation and storage is one of the hottest and broadest subjects in applied science. Many of the teams in this field are in competition with each other, some for the same grants at the same institutions. Some research focuses are so similar that, were it politics or business, they would simply be merged into one. This is exactly the disconnect between academia and the rest of human endeavors: in academia, *every detail matters*, regardless if the outcome is the same, or if only one detail differs.

            The whole notion of research is that through the right blend of competition and cooperation the best ideas bubble to the top, get recognized as such, and then get applied to the rest of the world. Yes, this takes longer than we want, but that’s mostly the fault of optimistic journalists and the modern feel of daily breakthroughs. This “democracy of ideas” ends up scoring humanity better and more robust ideas to run with, and so is better in the long run than dictatorial science..

            What’s “wrong” with, say, establishment physics, is that this free-flowing democracy of ideas has been stymied by an oligarchy of ideas which “can’t be wrong”, by way of a set of very complex self-fulfilling prophecies. These sort of hangups often tied to establishment physics are nearly absent from material science, computer science, genetic research, and other fields, mostly because there isn’t this indoctrinated sense of “we’ve figured it all out, guys”.

            Bottom line: science is ground-up, not top-down. Real world problems might get government or industry grants, but only scientists researching their “little pet theories” actually learn anything concrete for humanity, or give us anything truly new to run with. I might even go so far as to say that your ill-gotten statement I quoted at the top is precisely the sort of top-down, I-know-what’s-best hubris that infects the minds of the rulers of the oligarchy of ideas in establishment physics. The entire POINT of science is that WE DON’T KNOW what’s best until we LEARN it, via the scientific method. That’s basic research – like physics – and that’s why its called basic.

            Rant over.

  • Zephir

    This is rather lengthy article and also typical postmodern rant, typical for contemporary mainstream physics clowns – whole text doesn’t contain single experimental evidence of the monopole state during LENR, single testable prediction the less. Next time we will read here, that the LENR is the evidence of parallel universes, extradimensions or what?

    • damn_right _man

      Right, You said it, I also, but i read Your post afterwards. Do not forget, that LENR also can work due to mind-over-matter.

    • Axil Axil

      Holmlid has seen mesons produced in his experiment. This is called magnetic monopoles catalyzed nucleon decay Seeing protons and nuetrons turn into mesons is a test for the existence of the monopole.



      Some beyond-the-Standard Model grand unified theories (GUTs) explicitly break the baryon number symmetry, allowing protons to decay via the Higgs particle, magnetic monopoles or new X bosons. Proton decay is one of the few unobserved effects of the various proposed GUTs. To date, all attempts to observe these events have failed.

      Holmlid has seen 12 billion mesons produce with each laser shot.

  • Ophelia Rump

    Axil Axil you said “Like Qi, the LENR monopole rides the wind and scatters, but is retained when encountering water.”

    Would this imply that a jacket of static water around a LENR reactor would modify the reaction by amplifying the monopole concentration? If so, how might it effect the reaction over time.

    Even if it did not effect the reaction a large and powerful monopole could drive a motor.
    Would the concentration continue to build up over time?
    Would it dissipate and reach some plateau?

    • Axil Axil

      IMHO, the best way to keep monopoles inside the reactor is to contain them in either an magnetic bottle or a magnetic metal shield like iron that is water cooled.

  • Axil Axil
  • AstralProjectee

    Is a monopole Chi otherwise known as Qi? It’s mentioned here when it says “Like Qi, the LENR monopole rides the wind and scatters, but is retained when encountering water.”

    • Axil Axil

      This is a Chinese based allegorical reference to the apparent behavior of the ENP seen in the poly-neutron and Erzion experiments. In the Poly-neutron experiment, the ENP was detected by CR-39 particle detection strips some meters away from the electrolytic cell. The ENP was also pushed by air currents produced by a fan so that the density of detection events was increased by a factor of 7 times at the farest detector positions. But in the Erzion experiment, the ENP was captured in water where their interactions produced tiny bubbles that remained in the water for a day.

  • Axil Axil