Magnetic Confinement in LENR? (Axil Axil)

The following post has been submitted by Axil Axil

We can’t build a bridge without a plan. We can’t get LENR to work without a valid theory. I am beginning to think that LENR is caused by magnetic particles, let’s call them Exotic Neutral Particles (ENP) that can float on currents of air. This theory has implications to getting LENR to work. If a reactor is build out of material that is transparent to ENPs then these important particles could escape the reactor without producing more ENPs thus keeping the LENR reaction energy starved. But if the reactor could be insulated from EMP escape, then the reactor would hold onto the energy that it produces and become gainful.

Replicators are perplexed by the success of Parkhomov’s reactor. Why can’t anybody get the Parkhomov reactor to work even with the same fuel that he used? But everybody is amused by the old iron pot that Parkhomove ran his experiment in. That iron pot could be keeping the magnetic ENP from escaping the confines of his reactor. All the other replicators let their precious ENPs escape into the air.

Why does Rossi enclose his fuel in a cartridge containing layers of steel? Could the iron particle in the Lugano fuel sample come from a magnetic confinement system? Does Rossi have an iron mesh inside the alumina tube to produce magnetic confinement? If theory says that keeping ENPs confined is important, then the use of iron and steel in Rossi type reactors becomes interesting.

Axil Axil

  • Axil Axil

    The replicator would be well served to insert a metal nano mesh into his alumina tube to keep the fuel particles distributed in the reaction chamber.

    Let us try to define a spec for a metal foam for the Glowstick reactor.

    The foam is nickel. It is an open cell filtration foam. Its filaments are as thin as possible(high porosity). The particle sizes that the foam holds are from 5 to 200 microns.

    A channel cavity down the center of the filter will turn the reactor into a heat pipe.

  • Axil Axil

    I copied this design from Ken Shoulders.

    http://rexresearch.com/ev/ev2x.gif

    Firstly, the spark can be generated at the tip of a sharply pointed electrode when a large negative charge (2-10 kv) is applied. A dielectric plate (preferably fused quartz or alumina, typically 0.0254 cm thick) intervenes between the emitter cathode and the collector anode. I believe that Rossi uses fued quartz because a particle of silicon oxide was found in the pretreated fuel by the Lugano fuel analysis.

    A thin channel is cut in the dielectric as a holder for the 5 micron nickel powder. This allows the spark to follow the channel and interact with the nickel powder.

    The arc makes a streak of light as it travels across the surface of the dielectric following the channel, and imparts a localized surface charge. An amount of time suffent to allow the electric charge produced by the spark to disperse so that the next spark will follow the channel. Unless this charge is dispersed, it will cause the next spark to follow another path. A witness plate of metal foil may be positioned to intercept the spark, and will sustain visible damage from their impact. The foil thus serves to detect and locate the entities even if they are invisible.

    The anode current value can vary from 1 to 6 amperes. Shoulders has found that a 1-ampere level of anode current is produced by a chain of 3-5 EV beads whose overall diameter is about 3 micrometers. A sufficiently low load resistor must be used so that the voltage will not rise and deflect the EV. For a 2 kv pulse, a rise of 500 volts at the anode is a reasonable maximum. The rise rate is very high, and a wide-band oscilloscope is required to measure it. Otherwise, a capacitively coupled load must be provided for the EV. There is an upper EV size or current limit that can be collected for any particular wire size. The EV generator is typically about 10 mm. long, but the generation and manipulation of EVs can be accomplished with structures as small as 10 micrometers. The materials used in its construction need be very stable and durable to withstand the high energy of EVs. The generator also can be tubular, and it can be designed to operate in a vacuum or in a gaseous atmosphere. In a high vacuum system, the space between the cathode and anode should be less than 1 mm for a 2 kv charge. In a gaseous atmosphere of a few torrs pressure, the distance between the electrodes can extend to over 60 cm if a ground plane is positioned next to or around the tube.

    The negative pulse can vary from a few nanoseconds to continuous DC without unduly influencing the production of EVs. A series resistor is placed between the pulse voltage source and the EV generator, and a scope is used to monitor the voltage. The current is calculated from the resistor value and the voltage drop.Long pulse conditions in a gas atmosphere require the use of an input resistor to prevent a sustained glow discharge within the tube. The discharge is easily quenched under low pressure or vacuum conditions. Using a pulse period of 0.1 microsecond, for example, a resistor value of 500 to 1500 ohms is practical for operation in either a vacuum or gaseous regime.

    The cathode may be constructed of copper or a wide variety of other materials (Ag, Ni, Al, etc.). I would suggest nickel. It must have a sharp tip or edge so that a very high field can concentrate there. However, the dissipation of energy by EV production destroys the electrode tip, which must be regenerated. This can be accomplished with a liquid conductor such as mercury. Non-metal conductors also may be used instead (i.e., glycerin doped with potassium iodide, or nitroglycerin/nitric acid). The pulse rate of the power applied to the cathode must be low enough to allow migration of the liquid conductor. Rossi probably uses mercury as the liquid cathode because of the heavy element residue present on his nickel fuel particles.

    The cathode also can be embedded within a guide groove in the dielectric base. Such a cathode may be made of metallic paste. The residue on Rossi fuel leads me to suspect that the following method was used to process his fuel. Molybdenum powder is preferable because silver or copper are too soluble in mercury to be useful in such a film circuit. A surface embedded cathode enables the propagation of EVs with only 500 volts and a much higher pulse rate. Molybdenum was found in the Lugano fuel analysis.

    Pausing for some observations about the Lugano report:
    “Sample 2 was the fuel used to charge the E-Cat. It’s in the form of a very fine powder. Besides the analyzed elements it has been found that the fuel also contains rather high concentrations of C, Ca, Cl, Fe, Mg, Mn and these are not found in the ash.”

    I believe that these elements were transmutation products produce by the fuel pretreatment process. Also, the large numbers of heavy elements that were welded onto the surface of the nickel powder were produced in preprocessing.

    The elements on the carbon adhesive might be considered additive. However I doubt that they were added in separately. But the elements on the surface of the nickel particles were welded and produced by a high temperature transmutation produced by fuel preprocessing.

    Continuing on with the description of the process: an EV can be guided across the surface of a dielectric if a positively charged ground plane or counter-electrode is positioned on the opposite side of the dielectric. The path of the EV also can be influenced by RC (Resistance/Capacitance) and LC (Induction/Capacitance) guides.

    This process must be done in an isolated atmosphere of vacuum where the mercury and moly vapers can be diverted away from the experimenter.

  • Omega Z

    The first Hotcats were 3.5kWh.

  • Axil Axil

    My reading of the fuel used in the Lugano demo is that it was pretreated in a way that the treatment method generated extensive transmutation on the surface of the fuel particles. The nickel fuel particle was covered with all kinds of heavy Z elements including a full range of rare earths. It is doubtful that Rossi salted the fuel with heavy elements because these elements were not detected in the bulk element analysis of the fuel load. My guess that this pretreatment process involved spark discharge into the nickel particles in the same way that Mizuno activates his nickel surfaces. This pretreatment was energetic enough to produce sintered particles where many 5 micron nickel particles combine into some numbers of 100 micron particles. Yes, pretreatment of the nickel is the key to a successful LENR reaction.

  • Axil Axil

    http://coldfusion3.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/11016788_931342816896418_4531602178363656119_o-300×101.jpg

    Back in the early days, the cause of the breakup between Defkalion and Rossi was the tendency for Rossi’s reactor to blow apart during startup. This was caused by a pileup of the fuel in the center of the reaction chamber. When DGT started their R&D, they hit upon a technique that spread the nickel micro powder evenly across the reaction chamber and held the powder more or less spread equally within the volume of the reaction chamber. . Dekalion used a nickel metal foam to hold the particles suspended in space so that the powder does not settle in a pile in the middle of the reaction tube.

    There are indications that Rossi is doing the same metal mesh based powder suspension method.

    If a replicator experiences a tube explosion, he is close to a successful LENR reaction. The replicator would be well served to insert a metal nano mesh into his alumina tube to keep the fuel particles distributed in the reaction chamber.

    • Omega Z

      When Rossi had agreements with Defkalion, Rossi used a steel reactor with an outer copper housing as a water jacket. These operated at about 200`C with water/steam around a 120`C. These were the Low temp E-cats. Not Lugano reactors.

      It was nearly a year after Rossi and Defkalion parted ways before Rossi created the Hot-Cat. According to Christos Stremmenos who helped to create Defkalion for the specific purpose of marketing the E-cat(And became 1 of the DGT Board member), The parting of ways was because DGT didn’t meet financial commitment deadline.
      From Christos Stremmenos posting
      http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/?p=771&cpage=2#comment-480077
      ——————————————————————————–
      (2) the obligation on the part of Defkalion to pay a first installment of intellectual property fees to Rossi, concurrently with the positive results of a test of the reactor to be held in a Greek University.
      Unfortunately, Defkalion Green Technologies did not meet their financial obligations. After about eight months of shoddiness and delays, Rossi denounced and annulled the contract.
      ——————————————————————————–
      Stremmenos also says- I was later informed by friends that, while the contract was pending, DGT, lacking financial means of their own, were negotiating pre-sales of Rossi’s technology — a technology which they did not have!
      ——————————————————————————–
      Well, It doesn’t really matter as this is all history…

    • Omega Z

      Note Rossi uses these Ceramic reactors for R&D, because they are cheap & disposable.

  • Axil Axil

    Why Parkhomov’s reactor works and the reactors of his replicators don’t as follows:

    Parkhomov was lucky in that he used a Russian built power triac lamp dimmer that produced square waves with the proper higher frequency harmonics wavelengths that stimulate the LENR reaction.

    To duplicate this condition, use a second coil for RF stimulation whose length is in the citizen band wavelength range (35 to 37 feet) and drive it with a CB radio.

    If you elect to use a triact, how do you know that you are using a good one that is producing the proper harmonics. You can test your triac for the proper harmonic frequency by listening for interference coming from a CB receiver when the triact cycles through your heat coil. The length of the heater coil should be between 35 to 37 feet of wire to match CB wavelengths or some fraction of that length (1/2, 1/4, 1/8, etc.)

  • Axil Axil

    Magnetic trap

    Parkhomov let steam out of his iron pot though a space in the lid. Here is a better way to let steam out of such a magnetic confinement reactor shell.

    A magnetic trap can let steam escape the reactor while keeping magnetic particles inside.

    http://www.quantum.physik.uni-mainz.de/Illustrationen/__bec__introduction__quadtrap.gif

    Thoi configuration of the magnetic field produced by two separate permanent or electromagnetic ring magnets will divert the magnetic particles on the field lines aqay from the steam path. The magnetics can be held in place using a non magnetic material like aluminum tube.

  • Axil Axil

    Replicators, use Martensitic grade or Ferritic grade stainless steels for the reactor shell because those grades are magnetic.

    Martensitic Grades –
    Martensitic grades were developed in order to provide a group of stainless alloys that would be corrosion resistant and hardenable by heat treating. The martensitic grades are straight chromium steels containing no nickel. They are magnetic and can be hardened by heat treating. The martensitic grades are mainly used where hardness, strength, and wear resistance are required.

    Type 410

    Basic martensitic grade, containing the lowest alloy content of the three basic stainless steels (304, 430, and 410). Low cost, general purpose, heat treatable stainless steel. Used widely where corrosion is not severe (air, water, some chemicals, and food acids. Typical applications include highly stressed parts needing the combination of strength and corrosion resistance such as fasteners.

    Type 410S

    Contains lower carbon than Type 410, offers improved weldability but lower hardenability. Type 410S is a general purpose corrosion and heat resisting chromium steel recommended for corrosion resisting applications.

    Type 414

    Has nickel added (2%) for improved corrosion resistance. Typical applications include springs and cutlery.

    Type 416

    Contains added phosphorus and sulphur for improved machinability. Typical applications include screw machine parts.

    Type 420

    Contains increased carbon to improve mechanical properties. Typical applications include surgical instruments.

    Type 431

    Contains increased chromium for greater corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties. Typical applications include high strength parts such as valves and pumps.

    Type 440

    Further increases chromium and carbon to improve toughness and corrosion resistance. Typical applications include instruments.

    Ferritic Grades –
    Ferritic grades have been developed to provide a group of stainless steel to resist corrosion and oxidation, while being highly resistant to stress corrosion cracking. These steels are magnetic but cannot be hardened or strengthened by heat treatment. They can be cold worked and softened by annealing. As a group, they are more corrosive resistant than the martensitic grades, but generally inferior to the austenitic grades. Like martensitic grades, these are straight chromium steels with no nickel. They are used for decorative trim, sinks, and automotive applications, particularly exhaust systems.

    Type 430

    The basic ferritic grade, with a little less corrosion resistance than Type 304. This type combines high resistance to such corrosives as nitric acid, sulfur gases, and many organic and food acids.

    Type 405

    Has lower chromium and added aluminum to prevent hardening when cooled from high temperatures. Typical applications include heat exchangers.

    Type 409

    Contains the lowest chromium content of all stainless steels and is also the least expensive. Originally designed for muffler stock and also used for exterior parts in non-critical corrosive environments.

    Type 434

    Has molybdenum added for improved corrosion resistance. Typical applications include automotive trim and fasteners.

    Type 436

    Type 436 has columbium added for corrosion and heat resistance. Typical applications include deep-drawn parts.

    Type 442

    Has increased chromium to improve scaling resistance. Typical applications include furnace and heater parts.

    Type 446

    Contains even more chromium added to further improve corrosion and scaling resistance at high temperatures. Especially good for oxidation resistance in sulfuric atmospheres.

  • Gerald

    Is there a material when you putt electricity on it it stops the particle en when you cut the power it lets then through? It would be a great fail save.

    • Axil Axil

      I believe that this is the way that the Mouse reactor controls the Cat reactor. Rossi uses the Cat and Mouse configuration to controls his reactor cluster.

  • Gerard McEk

    Axil, I do not disagree with the possibility that ‘magnetic particles’ may be screened in some way. However I think that any conducting metal would do that. The better the metal conducts, the better the screening would be. The magnetic properties of the metal housing do seem less relevant. It is a different issue if the particles are also charged, then a magnetic confinement can be important.
    I do believe that the current in all three phases of the Lugano test were distorted three phase 50 Hz currents and that no DC currents were found. I do not exclude that very high frequencies were superposed on these currents, because it could have been beyond the metering capabilities of the power meter and as far as I know, no HF oscilloscope was used to determine that.
    It is further questionable if an ‘open’ magnetic system like the Hot-cat can be can be sufficiently screened to avoid leakage of these particles, but maybe it does not need to be perfect.

  • John Littlemist

    Interesting. It seems also that Pekka Soininen (Etiam Inc.) is using reaction containers made of steel:
    “After the reactions the reaction material obtained from the reaction
    container possibly contained traces of vanadium isotopes and phosphorus
    that were not present in the original reaction material, although
    contamination from the steel used for the construction is not entirely
    excluded”

    http://www.google.com/patents/US20150162104?cl=en

  • Axil Axil

    IMHO, magitism is not stimulative. Iron provides magnetic containment up to a reactor operating temperature of 770C. At 770C, the Curie point is exceeded and the iron is ineffective as a magnetic material. The Glowstick requires temperatures over 1000C to startup. The is no material that can be used as an outside container above 1100C because of the Curie point. That is why a sinusoidal coil is the only device that can force magnetic material to the center of the reactor tube.

    Could it be that the three coils in the Rossi reactor are used for different things: one coil is used as a heater, another used as a sinusoidal magnetic containment coil, and the last for RF stimulation? Notice the three wire connections on the Hot Cat coils. But things are not as simple as that. The Rossi’s control system produces complex waveforms. Could these complex waveforms produce the three functions of heating, magnetic containment and RF stimulation?

    https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/docservice_image_drawings/WO@@@id00000030363131@@@10873194@@@200@@@0@@@000059.tif

    It may be possible to multiplex the three required waveforms that perform the three functions of heating, magnetic containment and RF stimulation into a square wave.

    There is a beautiful animation by LucasVB explaining the Fourier decomposition of a square wave:

    http://i.stack.imgur.com/Aw9FB.gif

  • Axil Axil
  • Axil Axil

    Hank Mills
    December 29th, 2013 at 2:34 PM
    Dear Andrea,

    The information you are sharing is facinating. While we wait for the full reports, it gives us something to think upon.

    1 – If the mouse over stimulates the cat so it runs around in circles continually, not going back to sleep, does the cat always explode?

    2 – Have you ever witnessed the cat running around in circles for extended periods of time, not needing any extra stimulation, but remaining stable?

    3 – Other than heat from the mouse, is anything else stimulating the cat during the drive or self sustain periods? It may not work for the hot cat, but I wish there was some low power method of keeping the cat stimulated. For example, like the 100 watts of radio frequencies that kept the one megawatt plant in self sustain mode.

    4 – By how many degrees on average does the surface of the cat vary from the end of the drive stage to the end of the self sustained stage?

    Andrea Rossi
    December 29th, 2013 at 6:10 PM
    Hank Mills:
    1- no
    2- confidential
    3- no
    4- the temperature of the Cat raises when the Mouse is turned off, lowers when the Mouse is turned on
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.
    ===========

    Rossi has provided a comprehensive explanation of the Cat and Mouse reactor clustering method in bits and pieces throughout his Q&A blog. One of them explains how the shutdown of power from the Mouse causes the Cat to be stimulated.

    I now take this to mean that when Rossi shuts off a magnetic confinements field coil that keeps the Magnetic Neutral Particle(ENP) inside the Mouse, the LENR reaction in the Cats take off because the ENPs can get through the hot alumina and then get into the Cats to stimulate the LENR reaction.

    The fuel mix in the Cat must be richer and more LENR reactive than the fuel mix in the Mouse stimulator.

    • Roland

      Alternatively, by deduction rather than by evidence or theory, in the on mode the mouse suppresses the cats, which otherwise are trending towards runaway, by moderating the reaction through EMF effects that interfere with certain resonant positive feedback frequencies that enable LENR.

      From this perspective, which is completely speculative, there is one mechanism that brings the reactor up to the active state and another mechanism, the mouse, that suppresses the active reaction and may even function as an ‘off’ button if needed.

      I’m stuck with the image of Rossi, in his words, ‘tuning’ the reaction. We were encouraged to view his listening to the tiger with a stethoscope as this ‘tuning’ process. I am also reminded that finding the right resonant frequencies to drive physical systems of all types can lead to some rather spectacular results, particularly if there is some form of entrainment leading to a positive feedback loop.

      In the very act of being the contrarian I am encouraged by your efforts to understand, as I too think the LENR reaction to be the result of manipulating subtle field effects and resonances, but am limited by a philosophical, rather than mathematical, bent.

  • Axil Axil

    It has been recently revealed that each 250kVA E-Cat tiger reactor module is composed of 16 reactors. Only one of those reactors is a powered activator(mouse). The other 15 are drones driven by the activator. The activator produces a reaction catalyst that drives the other drones. I say that the reaction catalyst is the magnetic Exotic Neutral Particle(ENP) that becomes mobile as its energy content level reaches a self sustaining threshold. At low temperatures the alumina tube reactor shell that all these reactors are comprised of confines the ENP. But as all these reactors heat up, the alumina shell becomes electrically conductive. At high temperatures, the alumina becomes magnetically transparent and this allows the ENP to leave the activator an enter the drone where the ENP catalyzes the LENR reaction.

    http://www.thevalvepage.com/valvetek/heater/fig1.gif

    • Eyedoc

      is it actually true that only 1 reactor is the mouse? where is that info from? or is there just 16 ‘cat/mouse’ reactors in a module?

  • Axil Axil

    The so called Erzion phenomenon was discovered in a series of electrolytic experiments marked by unexplained changes in a pool of cooling water outside of the catalytic cell. After 40 minutes of electrolytic cell operation, water on the tungsten anode side of the cooling vessel started loosing its transparency.

    Water on the stainless steel cathode of the pool of cooling water remained transparent, at the same 40 C temperature. A sample of bubbly water, removed from the anode side, was tested for induced gamma radioactivity. No such radioactivity was found in it; the sample became transparent after 24 hours. Attempts to reproduce the long-term loss of cooling water transparency with other electrolytes, and under different electrical discharge conditions, were not successful. But the effect was highly reproducible when experimenting with the tungsten-anode electrolytic cell and the 7 M KF electrolyte containing 50% of heavy water.

    http://pages.csam.montclair.edu/~kowalski/cf/341fig1.jpg

    That cooling water on the outside of the electrolytic cell’s glass reactor shell at the right side (see Figure 1) is close to the anode while cooling water on the left side is close to the cathode. The disappearance of bubbles, after the electrolysis, was very slow (half-life of about 10 hrs). Attempts to explain the phenomenon in terms of cavitation, and other ultrasonic effects, were not successful. The only satisfactory explanation was possible within the framework of the erzion model. Authors believe that bubbles are produced through the action of neutral Erzions.

    The Erzons phenomenon behavior is consistent with the magnetic based Exotic Neutral Particle(ENP). To begin with, the glass container is transparent to the magnetically based ENPs both optically and magnetically. The LENR reaction that keeps the ENPs viable produce the vapor that forms the water bubbles. The ENPs become energetically self sufficient in the water of the cooling pool where the ENPs remain viable for hours.

    If the Erzons phenomenon is produced by magnetically based ENPs, an iron plate placed just on the outside of the glass wall adjacent to the anode would prevent the ENPs from exiting the glass electrolytic cell. With the ENPs blocked from travel, bubble production would be eliminated.

    • Dave Lawton

      The water has a jelly like appearance and cuts down the transmission of light.
      Using water cell electrolysis with stainless steel electrodes and de-ionised water
      using DC 20v square wave at 3khz in 10min bursts and then let it rest for 30 min.
      repeat this for 48 hrs and you will see the phenomenon.