Direct Electricity Production from LENR (Axil Axil)

http://www.nist.gov/calibrations/upload/ao17-4.pdf

The Deuterium lamp can be instructive in explaining why Rossi likes the E-Cat X reactor so much, why Holmlid’s reaction is superior to the Rossi low temperature Ni/H reaction, and why arc discharge is the best stimulator of the LENR reaction. This line of thinking also might open up the possibility that might lead to a optical based chain reaction.

As a definition of terms, Extreme ultraviolet radiation (EUV or XUV) or high-energy ultraviolet radiation is electromagnetic radiation in the part of the electromagnetic spectrum spanning wavelengths from 124 nm down to 10 nm, and therefore (by the Planck–Einstein equation) having photons with energies from 10 eV up to 124 eV (corresponding to 124 nm to 10 nm respectively). EUV is naturally generated by the solar corona and artificially by plasma and synchrotron light sources.

Its main uses are photoelectron spectroscopy, solar imaging, and lithography.

To set the stage, we know from Holmlid that UV based LENR reactions produce an abundance of subatomic particles including K-mesons, pions, and electrons. We know from Dr Kim’s experiments at DGT, that solitons explode in a Bosenova releasing XVU and X-ray radiation, and from R. Mills we know that 10 nn radiation is produced in his reaction (I say it is LENR based)

For additional thoretical background see the thread

“Polariton engineering imperatives”

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6d/Deuterium_arc_lamp.jpg/440px-Deuterium_arc_lamp.jpg

A deuterium arc lamp (or simply deuterium lamp) is a low-pressure gas-discharge light source often used in spectroscopy when a continuous spectrum in the ultraviolet region is needed.

Plasma “arc” or discharge lamps using hydrogen are notable for their high output in the ultraviolet, with comparatively little output in the visible and infrared. This is similar to the situation in a hydrogen flame. Arc lamps made with ordinary light-hydrogen (hydrogen-1) provide a very similar XUV spectrum to deuterium, and have been used in XUV spectroscopes. However, lamps using deuterium have a longer life span and an emissivity (intensity) at the far end of their XUV range which is three to five times that of an ordinary hydrogen arc bulb, at the same temperature. Deuterium arc lamps, therefore are considered a superior light source to light-hydrogen arc lamps, for the shortwave UV range.

The UV absorption profile is very low for deuterium. This provides us with a win-win situation with the generation of abundant XUV production using arc discharge and high efficiency polariton production in the XUV range.

The chip production industry has found that plasma based spark discharge produces XUV light. Light produced through techniques now being considered by the chip industry generate a spark that lasts just 20 to 50 nanoseconds can produce very short wavelength light.

Rossi has hinted that his E-Cat X can produce electricity directly from the LENR reaction. The AIRBUS patent also called fro direct electrical production.

As with the Papp reaction in the Papp engine which did not produce any heat, the electrons produced by particle production can be harvested and used to produce the low powered spark even though the very high voltage spark has a high instantaneous power profile because it has a very short duration of discharge.

The XUV can also be fed into the polariton reaction through the Bosenova broadcast of XUV radiation.

If we are utilizing the Holmlid technology using noble metals and deuterium gas we should move away from the production of heat and produce electricity directly from LENR.

  • Axil Axil

    There is nothing new under the sun. LENR systems are reinvented over and over again as the years roll by. Holmlid is just the latest rehash of the XUV LENR system. Now it’s Holmlid time to reinvent technology that has been invented over and over again. Those who forget the past are condemned to repeat it.

    I have already talked about the Papp engine, but there are others.

    Atomic Expansion Reflex Optics Power Optics Power Source (aerops) engine
    US 3977191 A

    http://www.google.com/patents/US3977191

    http://www.free-energy-info.co.uk/Ch8/Fig75.gif

    Here is a sealed system engine power source which has no exhaust nor intake ports.

    The engine includes a spherical hollow pressure chamber which is provided
    with a reflecting mirror surface. A noble gas mixture within the chamber is
    energized by electrodes and work is derived from the expansion of the gas
    mixture against a piston.

    This engine is an example of how XUV can be used to explode nano-crystals to produce plasma expansion. The same principle of nanoparticle explosion can be used in a catalyzed water vapor based system as demonstrated by Papp.

    In the XUV portion of the spectrum (wavelengths shorter than about 30 nm)
    nearly all materials absorb strongly, making it difficult to focus or
    otherwise manipulate light in this wavelength range. Telescopes such as
    TRACE or EIT that form images with XUV light use multilayer mirrors that
    are constructed of hundreds of alternating layers of a high-mass metal such
    as molybdenum or tungsten, and a low-mass spacer such as silicon, vacuum
    deposited onto a substrate such as glass. Each layer pair is designed to
    have a thickness equal to half the wavelength of light to be reflected.
    Constructive interference between scattered light from each layer causes
    the mirror to reflect XUV light of the desired wavelength as would a normal
    metal mirror in visible light. Using multilayer optics it is possible to
    reflect up to 70% of incident EUV light (at a particular wavelength chosen
    when the mirror is constructed.

  • Alan DeAngelis

    I think the Papp engine does generate heat but it is lost in the adiabatic expansion of the piston in the closed system (as in a refrigerator). I’ve had some thoughts about this before (see the comments in
    this link).
    http://coldfusionnow.org/plasma-engine-reproduced-now-optimizing-for-efficiency/

  • Ophelia Rump

    How would the direct production of electricity compare by volume/efficiency compared to generating heat?

    Would a 1Mw plant reconfigured for electricity produce 1 Mw of electricity?

    • Omega Z

      You wont get 100% conversion.
      That said, Anything 35% or above is acceptable. Above 50% would be excellent. The situation is even better if it can be at small scale locally located where the excess heat can also be efficiently utilized obtaining 80% utilization of all energy generated.

      • Ophelia Rump

        Thank you, That sounds like you are still better off going with steam if you objective is pure electrical production then.

        Fifty fifty would be excellent for a home market. Or a local grid.

        • Omega Z

          Supercritical CO2 systems may be available in the very near future.(A prototype is in the works) They believe 50% efficiency highly probable at small scales. With refinement, some think 70% or above may be achievable.

          This would be great for a local/micro grid. Cheap energy from Ni/H with a sizable reduction in infrastructure costs. I can envision 3/5 cents a kilowatt total cost to the consumer. All variables considered, a home unit wouldn’t be any cheaper & a home system requires ones attention & inconvenience. A micro grid retains the status quo of switch on switch off convenience.

          • http://www.brillouinenergy.com Robert E. Godes

            Do you realize that for 70% theoretical maxim Carnot efficiency you need a temperature differential of 900C (1652F)? What materials do you intend to use for this equipment? The list of available materials with industrial useful properties for a product at 1000C for the hot side is quite short. Or is that 50 to 70% of Carnot efficiency? GE is talking about a 50% efficient Super-critical CO2 10MWe system. https://www.technologyreview.com/s/601218/desk-size-turbine-could-power-a-town/#/set/id/601229/ Reasonable to obtain at 600C on the hot side, 100C on the cold.

  • denton51

    On a related note DGT knew since 2010 that the E-Cat could produce electricity:

    http://www.nyteknik.se/nyheter/energi_miljo/energi/article3353181.ece

    “The same way more than a year ago when Rossi had never thought that his
    invention could create electricity. He had never thought about it until
    we told him.”

  • Pedro

    When I read Pions+Muons+Electrons as result of a reaction, I am immediatly reminded of Burchells book on Alternative Physics… http://www.alternativephysics.org/book/Particles.htm

  • Alain Samoun

    Do you mean producing electricity by photo-voltaic effect? Like Mills?

    • Axil Axil

      The Papp engine produced excess electrons and that system used XUV EMF to stimulate the LENR reaction. The Papp engine used special electrodes called hollow screw closeable buckets which contained an alpha emitter in a cavity like radioactive radium or thorium, where a electric arc greatly stimulated the alpha emitter. The excess electrons produced by the XUV based reaction were attracted to highly ionized positively charged buckets. This technology was used in the 1930’s for lightning rods where Papp pick its up its use from.

      http://www.pittas.gr/en/pages/services/radioactive-lightning-rod-removal/

      Since 1975 and under license from the Greek Atomic Energy Commission, installing radioactive lightning conductors was allowed. The lightning rod’s head had radioactive isotopes Am-241 or Ra-226. The intensive ionization of air around the rod’s head caused by the charged particles, created an attractive pole for lightning. Depending on the amount of radioactivity in the head – in μCi – the protection radius was determined from R = 50 to 400 meters.

      The Papp engine that was self powered by recycling overunity electrons produced by the XUV LENR reaction.

      To see how this all works, look at starting at 21:10 of the video below. Watch the motor in the background driven by the feedback current gathered by the electrons gathered by the thorium filled buckets.

      Bob Rohner still uses buchet electrodes to gather excess electrons but he still uses noble gases to produce the reaction. IMHO, deuterium is far better.

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_zWJNyoFgJM

      Holmlid also uses XUV and deuterium that produces K-mesons which eventually decay to electrons. It seems like XUV based high energy LENR reactions produce excess electrons.

      IMHO, Rossi is using the XUV high energy LENR reactions in the E-Cat X to also produced excess electrons.

      • Alain Samoun

        Why there are no cars with Papp engine in the streets today?

        • Axil Axil

          Jo Papp had cancer and he knew he was going to die, Three months before he died, Jo Papp destroyed all his fuel so the world would not understand how his engine worked. Just like Holmlid makes Rydberg matter to drive his reaction, so did Jo Papp. The magic was in the fuel.

      • Gerard McEk

        I do not understand the need for the coil from this video. In my view, it can be used to move the piston in the cylinder (and not the ‘plasma burst’). Somehow the small motor is connected to the capacitor. I do not understand why this test does not cause the motor running while the capacitor is being charged. Is a diode used? It would be helpful to show the electrical schematics, but that is secret I guess.

        • Axil Axil

          The function of the coil is to keep the plasma away from the cylinder wall and center the plasma axially in the cylinder. If you notice that this coil was not fixed. If it moved the piston upward, it would have a opposite reaction downward. This plasma confinement coil does not move at all. It does not bounce.

          One thing that Russ Gries found when he replicated this “Popper”… if the back-current was not removed, the device would miss-fire. The plasma needs to be discharged completely to fire again.

          The capacitor charges very quickly in a burst. We will not see a delay caused by a capacitor charge delay time.

          • Gerard McEk

            Thanks Axil, altough I accept your explanation, I would still want to inspect it carefully. (The coil can’t move downward as it is sitting at the bottom). What you are saying is that the capacitor is being recharged by the plasma. That would mean that with a proper (triggered) thyristor you would be able to make this work more or less endlessly. Where does the energy come from? What is the purpose of the thorium sub electrodes?

            • Axil Axil

              Most of the power comes from the arc, but addition electrons come from the reaction. Holmlid’s experiment showed that up to 12 billion mesons were produced from the vacuum. These mesons eventually decay into electrons as the final subatomic decay product. This is where the overunity electron production comes from.

              “What is the purpose of the thorium sub electrodes”?

              Look at the post above that includes the snip. Thorium is an alpha emitter also.

              http://www.pittas.gr/en/pages/

              Since 1975 and under license from the Greek Atomic Energy Commission, installing radioactive lightning conductors was allowed. The lightning rod’s head had radioactive isotopes Am-241 or Ra-226. The intensive ionization of air around the rod’s head caused by the charged particles, created an attractive pole for lightning. Depending on the amount of radioactivity in the head – in μCi – the protection radius was determined from R = 50 to 400 meters.