US Patent Granted to US Navy for “Excess Enthalpy Upon Pressurization of Nanosized Metals with Deuterium”

Thanks to Zephir for providing a link to a newly approved patent to the United States Navy for an LENR process. The inventor is David Kidwell, and the assignee is “The United States of America, as represented by the Secretary of the Navy (Washington, DC)”

A link to the patent can be found here.

Claim 1 provides an overview of the patented method:

“A method for measuring excess enthalpy, comprising: placing a test material in a pressure vessel; heating the pressure vessel to a given temperature; evacuating the pressure vessel; introducing deuterium, hydrogen, or both into the pressure vessel; measuring the enthalpy generated during pressurization; again evacuating the pressure vessel; and measuring the enthalpy used during depressurization.”

In furtherr claims, the test materials are described as palladium, platinum or any combination thereof with a size of , and “oxide support” is described as a zeolite or alumina.

This patent is for what seems to be a very basic process, as deuterium/hydrogen, combined with platinum/palladium have been used in LENR experiments since the time of Pons and Fleischmann, and the USPTO granting this patent might signal something of a vindication for those who have been experimenting with these materials over the years, and reporting excess heat. However, this is not an electrolysis system as Pons and Fleischmann used, but sounds similar to the work of George Miley at Lenuco, who has reported excess heat in a pressurized vessel with nickel nanoparticles .

  • Allan Shura

    I thought the policy at the patent office was now in consideration first use rights. It is a vindication of the main claims of Pons and Fleischmann first use, also of nano sized particles in 2008 of Yoshiaki Arata.

  • Slad

    Bachole: “Say we exploded say C-4 in that enclosure, and it retained all of the heat and all of the pressure, the amount of energy would be unchanged. Did I get that right?”

    Yeah, you could think of the explosion as the chemical energy of the explosive creating an increase in enthalpy inside the chamber.

    Heat is measured in joules: it’s a type of energy. Enthalpy has the same units. Think of it as the heat/energy inside a gas.

  • GreenWin

    There is a wealth of detail in this patent as to how to make <2 nm metal particles in an oxide matrix. It also suggests one potential reason for Ni/H replication difficulties. Making nanometric metal particles that do not grow or sinter is a very specialized art. Reading through this patent one realizes that lacking the billion dollar facilities of NRL or other well-heeled lab — it is a daunting task. Least of the problems is once the chemistry is done it is difficult to see what has been done – without specialized scanning microscopes out of reach of ordinary chem/physics labs.

    The claimed enthalpy arises only with deuterium – not H2 or H. Of particular note the patent cites two Randell Mills hydrino patent applications by reference. Which gives rise to theory of operation. Since after producing these exotic <2 nm Pd particles on the oxide matrix ONLY D yields excess heat. The patent refers to this enthalpy as "unknown" reaction. Heavy hydrogen D has a neutron which likely plays some role (Widom Larsen, electron capture, etc.) LENR has along history of theories explaining anomalous heat. We have seen D-D fusion-like reactions (with nuclear products) from P&F onward. This patent protects Kidwell/Navy's method of producing a Pd particulate-infused matrix that optimizes enthalpy resulting form pressurized deuterium.

    This process and patent now adds to the public knowledge of fusion-like anomalous heat resulting from a hydrogen species catalyzed under pressure at low temperature. Like the other Navy/JWK LENR patent (SPAWAR's "energetic particle generator…") this is a step toward further understanding of how species of hydrogen loaded into a metal lattice causes a
    nuclear-type reaction – without requiring billion degree heat and stellar pressures. It would be interesting to see if these experiments produce nuclear products e.g. He4, gamma, beta etc. Perhaps Navy NRL or DoD would donate a small sample of their finished catalyst to MFMP to replicate their discovery ??

    • Pekka Janhunen

      It is natural to think that if there is lithium, then normal hydrogen can be enough because one can have reaction Li7+p->Be8->2He4, but if no lithium is used then one must use deuterium to have D+D->He4. I am not sure if this is the correct way to think about it because lithium was also used in some Pd-D experiments, but at least it fits with this and Rossi’s patent.

  • Omega Z

    Oh Yeah, Well my better half says I’m a pain in the

  • Zephir

    Everything makes sense in certain scenario. For example the NASA may want to prohibit in getting patent someone else for technology, which it does consider perspective in a given moment, but which it’s still not pursuing by itself. Many patents in SW industry are quite stupid and general and their main purpose is to prohibit the patent trolls to patent it and ask for money in similar way, like the Eolas did.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eolas

    Today it’s possible to patent rectangle and ask Apple for copyright fees. Apple is therefore forced to patent rectangle in advance.

    http://www.theverge.com/2012/11/7/3614506/apple-patents-rectangle-with-rounded-corners

  • oldrolledgold

    Aaargh.The last thing I want is the Americans to have their hands around this.

    • HAL9000

      Don’t worry; it will be perfected
      in Japan, made in China, tested in India, assembled in Mexico and sold through
      your local Walmart. Or you can buy it on the black market in Russia.

    • Omega Z

      Your a little late there.
      NASA & the NRL already have some patents on this technology.
      And besides that, Rossi has serious aims of selling product to the U.S. Military. He made his intentions clear about that in 2011.

  • Pekka Janhunen

    In everyday speak, “enthalpy” is short for “enthalpy difference” (that is, difference before and after the reaction), and enthalpy differences are basically just energy differences. If the reactor does not expand or contract and sits somewhere in ambient pressure, then the PV term cancels out when making the difference so that enthalpy differences become equal to energy differences. So, when a chemist speaks about how much enthalpy some reaction has, he just means the reaction heat, the same thing which is normally called energy or heat in the LENR context.

    When I hear someone say “enthalpy”, I usually translate it to “energy” in my head, unless the topic is thermodynamics in which case one has to be a bit more careful.

    Concerning your question, if a reaction releases energy, it actually means that the energy is converted from chemical binding energy, or nuclear binding energy, in case of LENR. There is no unique answer to the question how much energy there is in a coffee mug. The answer depends on whether one allows the coffee to cool to room temperature or perhaps below, whether one allows it to evaporate, whether one allows chemical or even nuclear reactions to occur in it, or if one even somehow tries to include the vacuum energy. The absolute value of energy does not make much sense, only energy differences have practical significance, but when talking about differences, one has to fix the point of comparison somehow.

    • Omega Z

      “I usually translate it to “energy” in my head”. That sounds dangerous. Does it hurt. 🙂

      • Pekka Janhunen

        It does, but the quotation marks help a bit

  • Ophelia Rump

    This is what NASA has to say about the use of enthalpy: They seem to have invented the variable. I am not qualified to interpret their use of it.

    https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/enthalpy.html

    • Pekka Janhunen

      The concept of enthalpy is common used in chemistry and is much older than Nasa, http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=enthalpy

    • Agaricus

      The term seems to be being used in the context of this patent as means of claiming ‘excess’ heat – but without actually using that phrase. This may be necessary to allow the US patent office to grant the patent, given their past interpretation of guidelines relating to perpetual motion proposals.

  • Charles

    Granting the US a patent on any aspect of cold fusion can open the door to perpetual harassment of any individual, small business or corporation by the US government to promote crony capitalism. Beware.

    • f sedei

      The government bureaucrats are wetting their beaks.

    • William D. Fleming

      I didn’t know that government agencies could be given patents. Will they sell their rights to private companies? Any money obtained belongs to the public.

      • Omega Z

        Different Government Agencies can obtain patents. i.e. The Government.
        NASA makes patents that do not fall under national security concerns available for license. If it falls under the National Security blanket, you will never see it & this applies to individuals as well.

        Rossi’s patent went under such a Security review.

      • R101

        William, The CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia) has 3582 patents, 728 inventions and 275 trademarks.
        So yeah, they do.

        http://blog.csiro.au/27-things-you-didnt-know-about-csiro-that-could-help-you-win-the-next-trivia-comp/

  • Zephir

    /* AND it demonstrates that the U.S. Navy is hard at work on LENR */

    …? I could write such a patent application without even looking into the lab.

    • GreenWin

      Zeph, I think you’re too harsh. This patent details a very specific process to produce <2 nm Pd particles on an optimized oxide matrix. When loaded with D it produces anomalous heat. The patent is assigned to the U.S. government which can license it to benefit its citizens. In the end it is further evidence that LENR is a viable science.

      • Zephir

        Oh, come on. Chemical industry is full of recipes for palladium catalyst at zeolite. It’s standard procedure for hydrogenation.

        • GreenWin

          Zeph your skepticism is appreciated. And you are correct in citing Parchamazad/Miles work with zeolites. Neither (to my knowledge) have bothered to apply for patents on their Pd catalyst – deuterium process or resulting “enthalpy.” NRL/Kidwell spin it differently – and they have received a patent:

          Parchamazad et al., “Investigations of Nanoparticle Palladium/Deuterium
          Systems in Zeolites,” Abstract for 14.sup.th International Conference on
          Condensed Matter Nuclear Science”, Hyatt Regency, Washington, D.C.
          Aug. 10-15, 2008, the entire
          contents of which are incorporated herein by reference. The
          incorporation of the palladium was through an organic palladium
          precursor and the support was calcined before use–removing the organics
          and likely growing the particles. Parchamazad et al.
          made no mention of the particle size, cycling, nor amount of excess
          enthalpy was made.”

          Is this fair (or proper English?) Probably not. Is Navy Research Lab attempting to monopolize the original work of Parchamazad?? Probably. Big guv’ment labs need results to keep the gravy train running.

          The patent confirms a reproducible method of excess heat from a Pd/D LENR system. That benefits everyone. Further research will reveal that the implicit geometry of catalysts is critical to energetic systems. Surprise?? Not for those who have followed the ancient teachings of sacred geometry. There is little new under the sun.

          • Zephir

            /* Parchamazad et al. made no mention of the particle size, cycling, nor amount of excess enthalpy was made.” */

            This is plain lie, Parchmazad explicitly stated, that

            “The presence of nanoscale palladium and large electric fields (10E10 Vm-1) within the zeolite cavity are important for obtaining anomalous cold fusion effects.”

  • Sanjeev

    This seems to be a blend of dry Ni-H and wet Pd-D methods. Its interesting that they are getting excess energy with dry Pd powder, but I don’t think its commercially feasible (even for military). Unless they are getting KWs out of course. Only then it makes sense to patent it. I haven’t read the patent btw.

    • Zephir

      It cannot have wide usage from industrial perspective, but it could have
      applications for NASA (thermoelectric generators for space-probes),
      where the high price of palladium is not critical. The NASA faces shortage of 238-plutonium and the cold fusion generators could replace it even at comparable price with advantage: lack of radiation and danger during starts of spaceprobes in Earth atmosphere. http://www.wired.com/2013/09/plutonium-238-problem/

  • Zephir

    I don’t understand, why the people should be impressed with it and I’m not even sure, if the patents like this are positive thing. It all deals with well known processes and systems, described in the public literature many times. Such a patents should be never granted. It’s purpose is only brick the utilization of these results for others (as it’s usual for patent applications).

  • gdaigle

    Considering this patent and other studies retesting materials and methods close to the original Pons and Fleischmann experiments… I wonder if Stanley Pons has commented anywhere publicly?

    • http://www.lenrnews.eu/lenr-summary-for-policy-makers/ AlainCo

      Pons no more want to do anything with LENR, and is living quietly.

      The reason he refuse to work on or support LENR is a choice, and even if I disagree, I fully understand why. Future will say. It is not a selfish decision.

      • gdaigle

        Perhaps he could be tempted out of retirement to collect a Nobel Prize. I hope he lives long enough to be so honored.

  • US_Citizen71

    Entrapy is the difference in total energy of a system measured over time. U is the total energy of and object be it chemical, kinetic or nuclear. Changes to pressure and volume can cause an increase in energy without effecting U. The U value for 1 mole of helium in a space of 1 cubic meter is no different than the U value of 1 mole in a space of 1 cubic centimeter but the energy potential is different.

    • gerald

      Like kwh vs watts/amps ?

      • US_Citizen71

        Watts could be a value for entrapy as it is an instantaneous unit of power/energy. kWh could be a measurement of the rate of the change but not the change itself since it has a time unit.

  • ecatworld

    This seems to be clearly saying the are measuring excess heat:

    “Gas pressurization of metal particles (palladium, platinum, etc.) 2 nm or less in size produces anomalous amounts of enthalpy in a reproducible manner. This enthalpy is produced in the presence of deuterium but not in the presence of hydrogen. Part of the observed, excess enthalpy can be calculated to be from D-H exchange–i.e. replacement of hydrogen atoms on the surface of the support with deuterium atoms, which is an exothermic reaction. Many control experiments have ruled out the excess enthalpy as being due to impurities in the deuterium that may be absent in the hydrogen. The source of the remaining excess enthalpy is unknown. ”

    • bachcole

      Good. But why do they insist upon saying “enthalpy” rather than “heat”?

      So, this is really quite amazing. We need to put Mary Yugo on a suicide watch.

      • ecatworld

        I’m no expert, but enthalpy seems to refer to energy produced by pressure — which is what this system is measuring.

      • Pekka Janhunen

        Enthalpy is energy plus pressure times volume, H=E+PV. Chemists often speak of reaction enthalpy when they refer to energy produced by a reaction. I think that enthalpy is in practice a synonym for energy in this patent.

    • georgehants

      Would it be fair to surmise that this report is directly connected to the device that Mr. Rossi, sold (donated) to the Navy in exchange for being allowed to work in the US on Cold Fusion.

      • artefact

        I thought about that, too.

      • Zephir

        I don’t think so, as this patent doesn’t deal with nickel + LiAlH4 system. I’m still aware of the fact, that A.Rossi got his USA patents granted just AFTER when he sold all rights to Industrial Heat, i.e. American company. USA government would never grant the patent of such potential industrial importance to Italian citizen.

        • Omega Z

          Anyone from Anywhere can obtain a U.S. Patent.

          Inventor: Andrea Rossi, Miami Beach, FL (US)
          Assignee: Leonardo Corporation, Miami Beach, FL (US)
          Filed Mar. 14, 2012 Granted Aug. 25, 2015

          As you can see, this was filed well before Industrial heat bought into Leonardo in April or so of 2013. There is another Patent in review that was filed in late 2013 or early 2014.

          The Assignee: of that Patent is Industrial heat and inventors are Andrea Rossi & another name i do not recall, but is an Engineer that works for Industrial heat.

          It should be noted that Rossi has lived in the U.S. for many years and was in a business partnership of LTI Global that did and still does million$ of work for the U.S. Government. DOE, DOD, Navy, Etc,.

          • Zephir

            /* Anyone from Anywhere can obtain a U.S. Patent. */

            Well, theoretically…

            https://www.reddit.com/r/Physics_AWT/comments/2ojeab/the_us_government_has_a_secret_system_for/

            In reality A. Rossi waited for acceptation of his patent three years and if he wouldn’t move to USA and sell his technology to Industrial Heat, he would probably wait even today…

            • Omega Z

              3 years is not at all unusual. And much of his patent was rewritten by good patent lawyers over time to get it accepted. This was never a question or issue. Rossi had always intended to setup shop in the U.S.. He’s spent many years here, had a partnership here and done work for branches of the DOD. He also has some early U.S. investors. Since the beginning, Rossi has reserved the N. & S. America License along with China & the big 1, Sales to the U.S. Military. This was all known in 2011…Brillouin Energy on the other hand has South Korean arrangements.

      • Omega Z

        Rossi received his pass to work in the U.S. long ago from President Jimmy Carter. He was 1 of 4 partners that created LTI-global that did and still does a Millions of dollars worth of contract work for the U.S. Government every year. LTI-global also has major involvements in China & South America as well. As I’ve posted before, Rossi is well connected.
        This is 1 of Rossi’s former partners. Also 1 of his JONP Advisers
        Richard Noceti, Ph.D. (LTI-global.com)
        Also 1 of his JONP Advisers
        Prof. Michael Melich (DOD – USA)
        Rossi had to give nothing to work in the U.S..
        He is openly welcome.

        • georgehants

          Omega, I am taking into account that Mr. Rossi many times talks of the security at the IH works, but has never even mention (I think) any form of security to stop the Navy or whoever dismantling and fully inspecting the one “sold” to the defense dept.

          • Omega Z

            I’m sure they ran many test on it George. Likely dissected it as well. It’s there job along with other agencies to monitor for (All)technologies that could have implications for national security(Threat alert) or that could be of benefit to them. The DOD is the largest energy customer in the U.S.(Well over $20B a year) NOTE: At least half dozen Countries do this other then the U.S..

            If they come across technology they deem a Security issue, they can conceal it & will provide some compensation along with a NDA. If they use it, you will be compensate per that also. Good news is the Government is usually generous. Bad news, tho Rossi would have been well compensated, It would have been peanuts in the case of LENR’s Value.

            Better news, Rossi’s Patent went through a full 3-6 month security review(Noted in the patent process) at the USPTO-> DOD, NRC, Etc.. Nobody flagged it as a security issue of any kind.

            The Military will be 1st in line to buy. Not take. This will save them far more then the fuel costs, but also hardware, logistics & manpower costs. It will also reduce the likelihood of conflicts. They prepare for war. Doesn’t mean they look forward to it. Bonus-You now have most of the U.S. Government that has signaled it is not out to stall LENR. That leaves the ITER gang & their support. Many of them have always been the problem.

            Now as to the Container- Ever see an Indiana Jones movie. At the end, you see a couple guys driving the last nails into a crate. Then push it into a huge warehouse full of 1000’s of other crates. When they are done testing it, That is where it will end up if not already. Never to be seen again. It’s real. The U.S. has 100’s of these warehouses around the country.
            P.S. One of Rossi’s Adviser on JONP is connected to the DOD. He’s been watching Rossi’s back….

            • georgehants

              Omega, thanks for taking time on your reply, yes I understand but would just say that, far more open and public attempts to bring peace to this World would be appreciated.
              These black budget guys are in the same position as oil etc. with Cold Fusion, it you remove the necessity for their existence then they become unimportant.
              The nuclear MAD deterrent has worked for almost 70 years and still little has been achieved to become tolerant and understanding towards a caring and sharing community for everybody.
              We have no worthwhile leaders, I think.

            • Agaricus

              “Likely dissected it as well.” Almost immediately I would think. As a 1MW heat source this prototype was a crock, but 100+ reactor cores and their control units could be distributed to all and sundry within the defense industry for testing, analysis – and reverse engineering.

        • R101

          Hmmm, maybe Andrea worked at S4. That could explain a lot. And the E-Cat catalyst is Element 115 😉

  • Private Citizen

    Is there enough in detail the patent to allow reproduction? So far, no one trustworthy has reproduced Rossie’s patent independently, to my knowledge.

    • Bob Greenyer

      It is non-trivial work.

      I have asked David for any further information he can share

      • Omega Z

        Oh come on Bob, LENR is so simple a child could do it.
        Which is why Adults have so much trouble.
        You Know. Like child proof caps. 🙂

        • Bob Greenyer

          hehe – yeh, right.

  • Bob Greenyer

    Ok, this is important – mostly because it comes from David Kidwell – that ads HUGE credence.

    I have made a text searchable / copy pastable downloadable version of the patent, which you can grab from a link on our FaceBook page.

    https://www.facebook.com/MartinFleischmannMemorialProject/

  • Bob Greenyer

    I Like.

    • http://www.lenrnews.eu/lenr-summary-for-policy-makers/ AlainCo

      If I understand well, it does not patent an LENR, but a kind of calorimetry ? is it?

      • Bob Greenyer

        It has that to it…

        but read this

        “Gas pressurization of metal particles (palladium, platinum, etc.) 2 nm or less in size produces anomalous amounts of 15 enthalpy in a reproducible manner. This enthalpy is produced in the presence of deuterium but not in the presence of hydrogen.

        Part of the observed, excess enthalpy can be calculated to be from D-H exchange-i.e. replacement of hydrogen atoms on the surface of the support with deuterium atoms, which is 20 an exothermic reaction. Many control experiments have ruled out the excess enthalpy as being due to impurities in the deuterium that may be absent in the hydrogen. The source of the remaining excess enthalpy is unknown.”

        This is about excess.

        • Eyedoc

          So no nickel / H coverage ?

      • Andreas Moraitis

        The abstract says unambiguously „A method for producing excess enthalpy […]”. Emphasizing the calorimetric method, as in claim 1, might be part of a diversionary tactic. Anyway, it will be interesting to see the response of the examiners.