“Phenomenological Model of Collective Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (Transformation)” by Leonid Urutskoev — Paper for Airbus Conference

Thanks to Peter Gluck for sharing about a paper he has been sent titled “Phenomenological model of collective Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (Transformation)” by Leonid Urutskoev, which will be presented at the 11th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen Loaded Metals 15-16 October 2015 Airbus, in Toulouse, France.

Peter has been given permission to republish the paper and it can be read in full at his Ego Out blog here: http://egooutpeters.blogspot.ro/2015/10/leonid-urutskoev-phenomenological-model.html

It’s a very interesting paper in which the author argues that fusion processes cannot account for the energy production found in LENR experiments, so another mechanism must be behind the energy releases that are undoubtedly happening. He writes about analyzing various experimental results and makes some conclusions:

“The results have convinced us that there must be a new type of nuclear reactions, which we have called: transformation reactions (as opposed to the term “transmutation”, which is used by all LENR researchers and which implies a shift of the nucleus of one chemical element into the nucleus of another chemical element). The introduction of the term “transformation”, which was taken from the theory of groups, was intended to emphasize the fact that this is an entirely new class of nuclear reactions with a collective, rather than a two-partial character.”

[…]

” We believe that the process of collective nuclear transformation proceeds in the “delicate” way in which nuclear transformations occur between multiple nuclei with close total energies, that is the process goes through the resonance path. The use of this norm in the phenomenological model allows to quickly find the ensembles of nuclei close in value of the total energy.”

[…]

” The authors of this paper have little doubt in the fact that the “cold fusion” phenomenon does not exist. At the heart of the processes observed in the LENR experiments, lie low-energy transformations which bear a collective character.

A little research shows that Leonid Urutskoev is a widely published researcher in the field of nuclear physics. Some of his publications can be found here.

  • fusionrudy

    Now its 92% – 8% in favor of LENR.

  • Axil Axil

    This is what the SPP looks like when it disconnects from the lattice and moves freely.

    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

  • Ivan Idso

    I would like to propose a new term. We already have fission and fusion, but as I understand it, there may be a third option. So I propose the term:

    Fasion- To fasten or fashion (combine) two atoms together in a non-violent (low temp, stimulation, resonance) means.

    I am mostly joking… but?

  • Axil Axil

    This is how atoms are connected by multi-wormhole entanglement to during a multi-atom cluster based transformation reaction.

    https://www.quantamagazine.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/OctopusWormhole_v1.jpg

  • Alan DeAngelis

    Does anyone know which isotopes of silicon are found in the ash of the lithium type reactors and in what ratios? This might help us figure out the mechanism.

  • Ged

    Now I see why NAVSEA wanted to leak their information before these guys. Competing theories battle, fight!

  • Pietro F.
    • bachcole

      I think that you get an LENT (Low Energy Nuclear Transformation) merit point. This is hardly 2 hours old. Nice catch!

  • bfast

    I want the heat too. I also care that there is no “surprises” like weird radiation or toxins. That said, the guys who are making this stuff will be much more effective in their work if they know what they are doing. They will know what they are doing much more easily if they have the correct theory to work with.

    I don’t care about the theory, but they need to.

  • MasterBlaster7

    Is this the world shaking airbus announcement? Cause I’m not feeling super shook.

    • Jarea

      No. This is one of the paper that has been submitted to the same conference where it will be announced by Airbus

    • Axil Axil

      From a small tree, a huge tree will grow. This will be humankind’s ticket to the stars. I expect to see a confirmation of dr, kim’s observations at Dekalion since AIRBUS is a ripoff of that system.

    • Alan DeAngelis

      Yeah, let’s hear about LENR powered spacecraft with Biefeld-Brown propulsion systems that will take us to the stars.

  • Bob Greenyer

    Brian Albiston is running first test with added passivated Lithium nano powder

    https://www.facebook.com/MartinFleischmannMemorialProject/posts/1051914348172597

    • Pekka Janhunen

      If one wants to add extra lithium (which was hinted by Rossi’s patent), why not add it as normal metal (passivated at surface if you want; but since you used argon atmosphere, it shouldn’t be needed), because it should melt and evaporate anyway when proper temp is reached?

      If passivated means that powder surface has lithium oxide, the lithium oxide would probably stay inert (melting point about same as nickel). Is there reason to suspect that lithium oxide might be important to the reaction? I would think not, but one never knows.

  • Gerard McEk

    This theory may be right to explain some of the LENR phenomena resulting in a scatter of other elements, but as the author says, this theory is based on reactions producing a minimum of exothermic energy. Maybe it fits more with the biological transmutation that some scientists have observed. This theory would not comply the the large exothermic heat experiments of a number of LENR investigators like Rossi, Godes, Schwarts and others, if I have understood it correctly.

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    It makes a lot more sense to me that God would create a
    subtle transformation rather than a violent collision to give us a new fire.

    • BroKeeper

      Bingo. He new in advance our needs. 😉

    • HS61AF91

      right on, gentle transformations happen all over nature… leaves make oxygen, etc.; courtesy of our Creator, and us wishing it so!

  • Jarea

    Everything is becoming more and more interesting!. Again the word “resonance” is used. Who will have the first accepted theory?

    • Zephir

      Frank Znidarsic did propose it before many years

      • Stephen

        I should have guessed! Another very smart guy with brilliant and interesting ideas.

    • BroKeeper

      It appears everything in the universe is based on resonancy whether particles or energy.
      It is a whole orchestra of music to the Great Originator’s ear.

  • Bob Greenyer

    Whilst it is true that in laser stimulation apparatus and exploding wires – fusion / fission products have been reported across a number of experiments, can we say this is directly applicable to the likes of E-Cat? I don’t know.

    Piantelli would agree that the underlying process appears closer to nuclear reorganisation than more simplistic particle collision outcomes.

    Also, I personally would say that if you were to see natural copper in your ash when starting with natural Nickel in your reactor, then since copper comes from volcanoes out of a mantle comprised in part of naturally occurring Nickel, then if there is a similar natural process – it is likely the outcome is the same.

    • Warthog

      I think the Mitsubishi/Toyota work on transmutation speaks directly to this, as that seems to show that “heavy” nuclei are adding deuterons as a flux of D* is forced through a metal matrix. And it seems to me tthat that work should completely answer any critics who say the process “…is not nuclear…”. There is NO other way to explain the isotopic shifts, yet the work is largely ignored.

  • Zephir

    /* The introduction of the term “transformation”, which was taken from the theory of groups, was intended to emphasize the fact that this is an entirely new class of nuclear reactions with a collective, rather than a two-partial character. It is usually considered that three- (or more) partial collisions are rare. However, collisions do not occur in transformation reactions. */

    IMO the cold fusion transformations are true collisions, but very low-dimensional ones – many atoms get involved at the same moment, which wouldn’t be possible, if these atoms wouldn’t sit along single line. Such a line of atoms attenuates the energy of collisions in similar way like the Gauss riffle and/or Astroblaster toy. You can find many demonstrations of these effect at the web.

    /* In nuclear physics, everyone is used to the fact that the greater the energy yield of the reaction channel, the more likely it occurs. Comparison of the experimental data against the results of calculations of the phenomenological model showed that all proceeds contrary in the transformation reactions, the smaller the difference in the masses ensembles of parent and daughter nuclei, the more likely the reaction to proceed through this channel. */

    This is also correct insight. Such a result is typical for noneequillibrial reactions, where the cooling of reaction mixture is so fast, that the thermodynamically unfavored mixture of reaction products gets favored. For example, during fast cooling of candle flame with cold glass table the layer of soots gets formed. Why is so, if the carbon is supposed to burn with oxygen spontaneously? Well it’s just because the hot reaction mixture has been cooled fast in accordance to Le Chattelier principle. The Astroblaster effect described above runs in both directions: not only it does allow to heat the group of atoms fast with low energy, but it also leads into extreme fast cooling of products of nuclear reactions, so that the less probable products of nuclear reactions get favored. Fortunately for us, just this aspect of cold fusion makes it invaluable for human civilization and a true beater of hot fusion (where the products of collisions are usually in thermodymaic equillibrium with reaction conditions and as such much less usable with respect to energy capture). The cold fusion is gift from heaven, a true gift of Nature to human civilization – and we should handle it responsibly.

    • Stephen

      Thanks Zephire, Interesting ideas, I’m more an enthusiast than a serious scientist but these kind of ideas fascinate me. If i understand right you see a collective effect from a collision in a low dimensional array or crystal such as a nanofiber which propagates trough the remaining atoms. Is that right? Is this also applicable to phonons and resonance and/or an initial collision that sets up the resonance?

      I’m no materials scientist but I recently got excited about Boron Nitrate Nano Tubes (BNNT) since they have some interesting electrical and magnetic spin characteristics and due to a high energy gap (5eV) are good insulators. They are also very good absorbers of Neutrons and are used for particle radiation shielding. They are stable at higher temperatures than CNT (1000 deg C in Atmosphere 1400 deg C in Vacuum, 2800 deg C in inert atmosphere). They are very good absorbers of Hydrogen. They are Hydrophobic and resistant to oxygenation. They can incorporate vacancies that can be easily exploited. They can also be doped and functionalised with various materials including Li, Si, C, Pd, Pt, Rh, Ni etc, that can improve or modify its magnetic, electrical and hydrogen absorption characteristics. Due to their insulation properties they are also used to encapsulate nano wires including Ni and Pd.

      I wonder if the BNNT insulation property is a problem (CNT do not have this property) or if a Ni or Pd nano wires encapsulated in suitably doped or functionalised BNNT (with Li, Pd or Ni for example) would bring benefits and work with your ideas.

      There is a lot of material on the internet regarding BNNT including some thermal, phonon studies. (Other forms of Boron Nitrate such as Boron Nitrate Ribbons BNNR might also be interesting). in case it is interesting here are some links that I have found that might be informative:

      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4311706/

      http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jp1078554

      http://www.u.arizona.edu/~deymier/deymier_group/refs/AIPAdvances2.pdf

      http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/14/9/17655

      http://www.researchgate.net/publication/243374563_Comparison_of_Electronic_and_Magnetic_Properties_of_Fe_Co_and_Ni_Nanowires_Encapsulated_in_Boron_Nitride_Nanotubes

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boron_nitride

  • Zephir

    The best experiment explaining its mechanism is described here.

    http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:52651/FULLTEXT01.pdf

    The injecting of deuterons into molten lithium leads into formation of heat and huge amount of alpha particles – at five thousands of volts only. But only at the temperature of lithium melting, not above. So that not only we have nuclear reaction started with few kilovolts of energy, but this reaction can be even controlled with minute temperature changes – which is really something! So, which physics is behind such an anomaly?

    Einstein was first, who proposed, that during mutual collisions of many deuterons an analogy of Astroblaster effect may happen. The line of atom nuclei may serve as a miniature solid state accelerator, so to say. But for reaching of energies required for fusion many dozens of atom nuclei must collide along single line at the same moment. The surface of lithium provides such an orientation of atoms – the atoms tightly above melting point are still arranged with surface tension beneath the surface like sorta liquid crystal. Once they’re heated more, their chaotic motion disturbs this arrangement and the Astroblaster effect cannot happen there anymore. Therefore the cold fusion is an result of extreme low dimensionality of deuteron collisions by arranging them along a single line. The decreasing of collisions dimensionality would undoubtedly help the hot fusion too.

    • Zephir

      Before ten years American researcher John Kanzius announced, that the salty water generates lotta hydrogen under action of polarized radiowaves at 14 MHz. With respect to energy density of radiowaves (5.10E-8 eV) the splitting of water molecules requires ~ 1.3 eV, so it’s as improbable and “miraculous” from thermodynamic perspective as the cold fusion runing at few electronVolts. It indicates, both phenomena are actually driven with the similar underlying physical mechanism, similar to nanocavitation involving mutual collisions of water clusters, not individual molecules. During this electrolysis also the thermodynamically metastable mixture of hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide is formed, which indicates, the excess of energy is greatly buffered – the hydrogen peroxide would otherwise decompose. For me it’s also interesting, that according to Kanzius this electrolysis runs with overunity yield.

    • http://www.lenrnews.eu/lenr-summary-for-policy-makers/ AlainCo

      lower dimentionality, as Ed Storms propose, as in fact Takahashi TSC propose, is probably the key to obtaine collective effects.

      It remind me the experiments of Sternglass with neutrons detected from X-ray tube filled with H2

      http://nautil.us/issue/7/waste/einsteins-lost-hypothesis

      • Zephir

        Yep – this is why I talked about Einstein, who has been actually first, who did propose such an explanation in documented way. In solid state physics such a collective effects follow anti-Stokes scattering and Mossbauer lattice effects, which also violate naive thermodynamics.

        These effects are even already utilized with mainstream physics during generation of highly energetic XUV radiation with pulses of infrared laser acting to thin oriented stream of gas expanding into a vacuum. This is IMO also one of possible arrangements of hot fusion, which could help there.

    • Axil Axil

      What reduces the dimension to one is alignment of matter along the magnetic field lines of a powerful magnetic field.