Alkali Metal Dispenser (Axil Axil)

The following post has been submitted by Axil

I have been looking into alkali metal dispenser technology.

http://www.google.com/patents/US20060257296

In some embodiments, an alkali metal dispenser composition of the present invention comprises:

a. an alkali metal source that comprises rubidium;
b. a getter for alkali metals that comprises gold;
c. a reducing agent that comprises carbon; and
d. an alloy, wherein the alloy comprises rubidium atoms from the alkali metal source (a) and gold atoms from the getter (b).

There are many chemical variations of this formulation current in the alkali metal dispenser business.

From the Lugano test report at the very end, the fuel mix that Rossi used includes a number of elements in his fuel mix that are a puzzle. It is a puzzle that begs to be solved. Those elements might have been part of his lithium dispenser method. Rydberg matter may require that the alkali metal be ionized and reconverted as in vapor disposition. This may be why Rossi added those seemingly unrelated elements to his fuel mix. They may first combine with lithium at low temperatures, then re-emit the alkali metal in ionized form at higher temperatures from which Rydberg matter condenses.

It might be advantageous for the replicators of the Rossi reactor to look into how these alkali metal dispensers work. One concrete example of one is the iron oxide potassium catalyst that Holmlid uses in his experiments.

Also, the dirty and impure materials used by Parkhomov may be the key to why his reactors work and our clean replications do not.

Axil Axil

  • Axil Axil

    A tip inspired by SPP theory to help the LENR reactor designer.

    Regarding:

    “Now in Piantelli’s EuroPatent that was revoked it is written:
    The transition metal can be selected from the group comprised of: Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Y, Zr, Nb, Pd, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Ag, Cd, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, lanthanoids, actinoids. Such metals belong to one of the four transition groups”

    Good engineering requires that there is a match between the metal selected for use in the reactor and the frequency of light produced or used inside the reactor that is optimally reflected by that metal.

    For example. nickel, zirconium, or titanium is best for infrared light. A reactor whose operating temperature is about 600C can use nickel best.

    Gold and silver are best used in a reactor that produces visible light. A laser that produces visible light is best used to stimulate these precious metals.

    Palladium, platinum and iridium is used best in a reactor that uses ultraviolet light. Light at that wave length is produced by a very high temperature reactor whose operating temperature is about 1500C. Or in the case of laser stimulation(as per Holmlid), a laser in the UV range will product the best stimulation.

    It is bad engineering to use noble metals in a low temperature reactor or to use nuckel in a high temperature reactor.

    If we want to design a reactor that uses a refractory metal like tungsten, we must test that metal to see what type of light is optimally reflected by that metal to see if it is compatible with the heat range of the reactor we intend to design.

    Theory establishes the engineering guideline concerning the match of the reflective properties of the metal to the optimal black body temperature range of the reactor being designed. In this regard, the correct theory of LENR is important to direct the proper engineering guidelines used in building a reactor. Random selection of a substrate metal will lead to uncertain reactor behavior.

    • builditnow

      Axil Axil,
      Good suggestions, something the open experimenters can do is try different “reflective” fuel containers.
      Interesting, because Parkhomov’s successful reactor used a thin stainless steel container for the fuel. Parkhomov did not answer as to what type of stainless steel (during the last conference), it is possible he did not know. Perhaps the stainless steel was the right mix to act as a reflector.

      The GS4 reactor used a nickel fuel container. If we are trying to get nickel to absorb the light (photons), then nickel likely would be a poor reflector to the photons we are wanting to reflect.

      It would be interesting to know about platinum’s reflective characteristics VS temperature.and wavelength. I think think platinum tubes are available.

      • Axil Axil

        I like the idea of using and metal or carbon aerogel for a container. We and inject some “secret sauce chemical salt” (a mix of water and chemical)into the center of the aerogel with a hypodermic needle and put the metal substrate particles on the outside of that core. The water (or other solvent) will eventually evaporate leaving just the chemical behind.

        • builditnow

          Do you think you or someone you know could make such a container for use in experiments?
          I elsewhere proposed an experimental setup for Parkhomov and MFMP glowsticks type reactors that could perhaps be less than $200 per setup to control temperature and pressure and be sensitive to excess heat in the range of 10 to 30 watts and log results to google.

          At that price multiple experiments could be running in parallel testing out many different parameters and new experimenters could spring up.

          It seems that we need many more experiments to find the secret sauce.

  • Axil Axil

    I ran across another patent for a dispenser that specifically covers lithium

    Mixtures for Evaporation of Lithium and Lithium Dispensers
    http://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2008/0042102.html

  • builditnow

    Axil Axil,

    Thanks for your deep thoughts on these matters.

    From a practical perspective, what range of additives to the fuel mix do you suggest and in what proportions?

    Alan Goldwater / MFMP’s latest run, GS4, used fuel provided by Parkhomov and used a similar but not identical reactor container, if it did produce excess heat it was less than the sensitivity of the experiment, less than about 100 watts. The one thing clearly different is that internal pressure at operating temperatures was in the 100’s psi range in the first run of the GS4 (see hugnetlab.com GS4). The subsequent reheat was about 20 psi absolute. Parkhomov’s pressure went up initially then down to about 7 psi absolute (from memory) on the first run. I think you suggested that absolute pressures in the range of 3.5psi to 7psi are needed for Rydberg matter to form.
    Let me know if that is correct.

    I’m looking for suggestions of experiments that the open experimenters can achieve given their budgets, equipment, skills and knowledge. Different fuel mixes and pressure targets would seem like a good starting point.

    • Axil Axil

      DGT used an arc to produce UV light that generated rydberg matter to form on the surface of potassium carbide. UV light from the arc causes potassium to be emitted from the carbide. Holmlid uses a green laser to do the same thing with potassium carbonate. The issue is how do we produce rydberg matter using lithium and just heat? Doing so is very hard as its turning out to be, That is the problem that I am thinking about.

      To get around the heat only issue, I was thinking about running a hydrogen gas loop through the reactor from a external reaction chamber where lithium carbonate is exposed to UV from a laser or an arc, the arc would be the cheapest…like the Suncell. This hydrogen loop is something like Brillouin energy does in their reactor. But Brillouin does not attempt to produce Rydberg matter in their loop because it would violate their theory.

      But I was just thinking.

      • builditnow

        For the open experimenters:
        What about potassium 40 or Americium-241 from an old smoke alarm as a source of some initial gamma rays to get the ball rolling in creating rydberg matter?

        I have heard that internally there are low energy gamma rays in a working reactor, I’m presuming that gamma would be sufficient to create rydberg matter.
        Once rydberg matter started producing it’s own gamma rays, the process could build up in strength.

        • Axil Axil

          When it comes to radiation, I like the electrode design used by focus fusion.

          https://www.freedomsphoenix.com/Uploads/Graphics/284-1127012346.jpg

          When it produces a high voltage arc, that electrode will produce a tight electron beam in one direction and a tight proton beam directed in the oppocite direction. We waste no power in particles going where we don’t need them to go.

          It also will produce some gamma rays from hydrogen fusion if deuterium is used, even if this radiation is minimal at low amperage.

          I would form a sphere with the lithium salt on the inside. that salt would be covered with a nickel powder. A nickel or carbon airogel mesh would hold the lithium and nickel particles in place.

          http://www.aerogel.uk.com/web-granule2.jpg

          When the electrode fired, the electron or proton beam (whatever one turned out to be the best to use) would hit the lithium salt and produce rydberg matter. The heat produced from the beam would blast the Rydberg matter through the nickel particles. Many rydberg matter particles would stick to the nickel particles so very few Rydberg particles would be wasted. The heat from the blast would activate the reaction.

          I am just thinking, it’s fun.

          The electrofe looks as follows:

          http://www.extremnews.com/images/full-9ff6f8aaa8aa4ad290a57cc17cb5181e.jpg

          • builditnow

            Axil Axil, interesting thoughts, someone could pick up on this idea, not sure our open experimenters can handle this one.

            So far, I like your suggestion of a photon reflective container for the fuel and also the possibility of using a negatively (or was it positive) charged cage around the reactor to reflect back some of the hard to detect radiation (was it muons of something) that might be coming out of the reactor and might also stimulate further reactions.

            Since we know a lot about the Lugano and Parkhomov reactors, our open experimental focus could best be on using very much the same reactor design while exploring what the secret sauce could be. I’m looking for suggestions for Lugano / Parkhomov type reactors since the open experimenters are mostly attempting replications of these reactors and we think that they work.

            So, what are all the things we can explore to get these reactors producing excess heat? I’d appreciate if you could detail what types of materials could work as a photon reflector and what voltages would be needed to reflect the muons (or charged particles) you think could be beneficially reflected back into the reactor.