Documents Referencing Hydrogen Absorption into Orbital of a Nanocrystal of a Metal (R. Little)

As we there has been much discussion recently about patents which have been filed and approved, and possible legal conflicts that could result, I thought it might be useful to highlight this comment from R. Little which provides some new (to me) references connected with the topic. This comment was originally published in this thread, addressed to Bob Greenyer

Dear Dr. Greenyer,
I applaud your outstanding experiments and open data concerning this matter. In writing I mean you no disrespect but congratulate and honor you. I do agree with this great assessment that you provide in the article above.
I hope only to write to you to note a few unknowns or unacknowledged facts.

1. It by others is written that Piantelli during the early 1990s used Ni rather than Pd as Ni is cheaper.

2. Piantelli’s patent (filed April 26, 2011) ( METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR GENERATING ENERGY BY NUCLEAR REACTIONS OF HYDROGEN ADSORBED BY ORBITAL CAPTURE ON A NANOCRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE OF A METAL) is not the first published mechanism of hydrogen (an hydride [H-]) absorbed into orbital of a nanocrystal of a metal.

3. Such mechanism of of hydrogen (an hydride [H-]) absorbed into orbital of a nanocrystal of a metal was first discovered, predicted and published in 2006: http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/… and later published in IJPS (2006) (below I will quote a paragraph that exactly and explicitly note such*).

4. Rossi had done outstanding in demonstrating new effects of Ni-H-Li since 2009.

5. Such Li-H-Ni system was not first disclosed by Rossi in 2009 or 2010.

6. Such system was first published in US patent application: http://www.google.com/patents/… April 2005 where in it explicitly notes and develops in details the ability of electric, magnetic, electromagnetic waves and pressure stimulates ferro-metal lattice to excite electrons in magnetic field and the build-up extends from valence to core electrons where by external species like hydrides can become involved and electrons in general excited outward from the core with anti-symmetry of the magnetic environment preventing relaxation and the build up of energy of such ferrometal pycno-media intensifies the energy to nuclear energies in particular of nuclear energies of smaller isotopes such that if ‘target atoms’ (H, He, Li, Be, B, C, N , O) are present then the excited magnetized core ferrometal lattice can couple with nuclei of these target atoms like H and Li and drive and organize nuclear reactions therein.

7. In the two documents referenced here, it explicitly notes that during uptake of hydride into the valence and core of the metal lattices and nanoparticles the electrons can be stripped of the hydride to leave protons which can collapse on the nuclei and the electron and proton as neutron can collapse on nuclei as well.

*”The mechanism based on magnetic orchestration of pycnonuclear reactions involves the following steps: 1.) under the prevailing conditions hydrogen uptake by the metal lattice and the high current density allow the formation of some amount of a hydride species (H-); 2.) the thermal and pressure fluctuations and magnetization cause the electronic rehybridization of the background Cu-Ag lattice with consequent sporadic localization and delocalization of these electrons and protons of hydride species (H-) within the Cu-Ag lattice; 3.) these protons and electrons of this hydride species exist delocalized in the 4d-like orbitals of the Cu-Ag lattice; 4.) localization of protons and electrons produces this hydride species in the metal lattice by the rehybridization of 3d, 4d, 4s, and 5s orbitals of the metal lattice; 5.) such localization by lattice rehybridization and confinement of H- within sd hybrid orbitals contribute to greater s character of the interacting electrons and protons in the form of (ea-p+eb- ) or (hydride species) within the sd hybrid orbitals within the metal lattice; 6.) within the sd hybrid orbitals the (ea-p+eb- )with its net negative charge is strongly attracted in the localization to the nucleus (M47+) of the metal atoms within the lattice; 7.) the (ea-p+eb- ) is heavier and more classical in its interactions with the nucleus; 8.) as the (ea-p+eb- ) approaches the nucleus the ea- is driven into tighter orbital correlation with the p+ in order to shield the proton from the nearby nucleus (M47+) in this confined s orbital state for the local metal nuclear compression of the ea- and p+; 9.) the spin and magnetic properties of the confined (ea-p+eb- ) state are more paramagnetic, an external magnetic field can therefore orients the nuclear spin of the metal atoms with the spin and orbital moments of the (ea-p+eb-); 10.) as the (ea-p+eb- ) approaches the nucleus (M47+), the nuclear spin torques the eb- by nuclear spin-orbit interactions for its intersystem crossing, so eb- changes correlation with the (ea- – p+), thereby driving the ea- into the p+ for even tighter orbits, this orbital compression is strengthened by the huge nearby electric field of the metal nucleus within the s orbital of the metal atom; 11.) the resulting aligned spins of the metal nucleus (M47+) and the eb- organize the steering of ea- into collapse onto the p+ for reverse beta to form neutrons, eb- may also collapse onto the metal nucleus; the p+ may collapse onto metal nucleus; the resulting neutron may also collapse on the nucleus for various rare transmutation processes. See Table 7. 12.) the proximity (less than 0.5 Angstroms) of the ea- — p+ to the eb- and the metal nucleus (M47+) within the s orbital allows huge local magnetic fields within the s orbital for extremely strong spin torque of ea- into the p+ thereby preventing gamma exchange as in isolated hydrogen thereby allowing the ea- — p+ to form a neutron. It is within the s orbital with finite nonzero probability of the ea- — p+ and eb- having very close proximity to the metal nucleus that length scales of 10-10 m such that the magnetic forces within the s orbital are on the order of 1/(10-5) 2 times the magnetic forces between lattice electrons in the domain of say a ferrometal. The magnetic forces between lattice electrons in the domain of a ferrometal of Fe are on the order of 1000 tesla. So the magnetic forces between the e- and p+ and the metal nucleus for very close nuclear approach of the hydride species to the nucleus of a metal atoms is on the order of 1010 X 1000 tesla or 1013 tesla. Therefore within the s orbital of the metal lattice, the e- and p+ of the hydride species would locally experience tremendous magnetic fields on the order of the magnetic fields in magnetars. An external magnetic field organizes (as in this work) the (ea-p+eb-) and metal nuclei for more favorable weak interactions, leading to enhanced cross-sections for fusion events. In zero applied magnetic field, the proper spin and orbital orientations for such fusion processes are much more random and less likely. The important of such left-right symmetry during weak processes has been demonstrated by Yang and Lee [40]. Yang and Lee determined that within an external magnetic field, the nuclear spin oriented such that during the beta process the release of electron has specific momentum relative to the nucleus that released it. Here on the basis of the Little Effect, it is demonstrated that an external magnetic field can orient the e and nucleus for the reverse process of reverse beta for greater probability of such rare fusion events. The external magnetic field in this way organizes the spins for such symmetry for the reverse beta process and e- or p+ capture process by the metal nucleus for greater rates and reproducibility of the pycnonuclear reactions. Without the external magnetization, the cross-section and probability are much lower. Here these still slow nuclear processes within the strong magnetic environment, high current densities, Lorentz compression and thermal fluctuations are observed due to the long period of these conditions, more than 2000 hours. Although, the rates of pycnonuclear reactions are still very slow under the conditions within the strong magnet, even greater energy input via laser irradiation of the Cu-Ag matrix can promote much greater pycnonuclear fusion rates for future practical energy sources. Large magnetic field can build up huge potential energy due to Pauli antisymmetry with faster spin torque of electrons into protons for faster neutron formation (reverse beta processes) and neutron, electron and proton captures by Ag and Pd nuclei. The greater spin torque on orbital motion and the greater nuclear induced intersystem crossing also contribute more pycnonuclear phenomena in 4d relative to 3d transition metals in strong magnetic fields.”

Sir, I have admired your openness over the last few years concerning this post Fleischmann and Pons Effect. Thereby I thought it would cause no harm for me to note these truths. I hope not to ruffle any feathers , I am only about truth and decency. I know some will be offended. But to those of truth and decency in this world (if any) I thereby hope to communicate. With Kind Sincerity and Gratitude, RBL

R Little

  • RLittle

    Thank you for your friendly response. I must admit when I first noticed this post on the internet I vowed not to read the comments as most responses over the years toward me are usually mean and hateful. But this is a rare occasion where the responses were friendly. Thanks especially to Mr. Greenyer . And I wish great success for Rossi and Piantelli. As a young aspiring scientist, it take boldness to step where there is no human encouragement and even punishment even in early 2000 as I stubbornly thought and even published on this topic. But still I reason and I am happy to see others develop and substantiate my reasoning. At that time, I wanted to develop and experiment but lacking resources but I did what little I could; I knew the ideas were great, even Divine! The greatest pleasure is to see them work; for this I hope to be even more thankful for people as yourself.

  • Axil Axil

    The production of huge magnetic fields are at the core of the LENR reaction. These huge fields disturb the vacuum so that sub atomic particles are form. If the magnetic field are strong enough, the energy content of the field is transformed into subatomic particles such as mesons.

    These mesons born from the vacuum are witnessed by the appearance of their decay product: muons has been seen in the Lief Holmlid experiments involving Rydberg matter. If these huge magnetic fields were formed in the atom, mesons would form.

    There is a alternate theory put forth that postulates that the vacuum keeps protons and neurons together because of the Casimir force. Because the protons and neutrons are so close together in the nucleus, The Casimir force becomes so large that pions form between the protons and neutrons to “reset” themselves through a continual change or flipping in their species (protons to/from neutrons). This theory makes sense to me.

    See

    Casimir forces in a Plasma: Possible Connections to Yukawa Potentials

    http://arxiv.org/pdf/1409.1032v1.pdf

    Mr. Little and I differ in how this huge magnetic field is generated and how that field produces the LENR reaction. For me, Surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) produce the magnetic field and the field produces subatomic particles: mesons. It is amazing to me that Mr. Little would even postulate the existence of that huge magnetic field at such an early juncture in the context of LENR. For this, Mr. Little deserves our respect.

  • Jarea

    Are we saying that we have a Little-Rossi effect or the Little and the Rossi effect are two completely different effects?

  • Nigel Appleton

    I see that patent mentions 74,000 amps and 403 volts, (nearly 30 MW) and an electrode mass in the hundreds of kg range.

    Not one for the home workshop experimenters, then!

    But certainly interesting for the theoretical content.

  • Stephen

    Wow! Thank you R. Little for sharing that here, I liked it a lot. My gut feeling has been that maybe spin and magnetic field is important, somehow, I found the much deeper understanding you have fascinating.

    I hope you can get in touch with other people with your level of knowledge, maybe even Piantelli, Norman Cook etc I think there is real hope the full theory for LENR can be found and published if people like you get together on this. I haven’t read your paper fully yet, maybe it’s already a complete theory for LENR. If your idea and and Patents of the Little Effect wasn’t yet published hopefully it will be one day especially as more is understood, it looks like it deserves to be.

    Is it only the spin of the nucleus in ground state or would changing the energy level of the nucleus also be important for it to have the correct spin to satisfy conservation laws for e and proton capture?

    • Bob Greenyer

      I know that Piantelli would be interested and perhaps I could facilitate that.

    • GordonDocherty

      Brilliant work – and – “The Little Effect”, what could be more appropriate (if by accident of name) for LENR? 🙂 Brilliant. This needs to be read – and considered – by as many as possible in the field.

  • Obvious

    That was a long, interesting and thought-provoking read.

  • oceans

    There goes a Piantelli patent claim out the window, always best to avoid litigation and find common ground the market for LENR is massive.

    • Bob Greenyer

      Sadly R. Little’s patents were not awarded for financial reasons. There may however be much that can be learned from them.

      • Mats002

        Do we have a reference or links to those patents?

  • Bob Greenyer

    Thankyou for this important contribution which includes new information to me. Full respect to you for historical observations related to the subject under discussion.

    The discussion piece I wrote today clearly stated that it may have material errors and was for educational and debate purposes. It was designed to solicit intelligent discourse.

    The patents you cite, have they been granted, has there been any specific embodiments that we could test?

    In the interests of truth, I am no doctor!