Want to understand LENR? Mart Gibson’s Excellent New Video Describing the Lattice Model LENR.

The following post was submitted by Ian Walker

Hi all,

Mart Gibson’s excellent new video describing the lattice model LENR. A fundamental video for anyone wanting to understand LENR.

Important for what needs to be done to achieve sufficient loading in LENR particularly why pumping the hydrogen/deuterium to high loads into the octahedral and tetrahedral interstitial chambers is fundamental to successful replication.

https://www.youtube.com/embed/3RiZxqZVoBY

 

Kind Regards walker

  • Axil Axil

    The theories of LENR must consider both the cause and the effect. This theory just consideres the effect. It does not correctly explain what causes LENR. In this case LENR does not occur unless a spark is added to the theory to produce fusion in the packed lattice.

  • Axil Axil

    A theory must explain all experiments producing tritium including the following:

    “Laser-induced synthesis and decay of Tritium under exposure of solid targets in heavy water”

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1306.0830

    and this one

    Initiation of nuclear reactions under laser irradiation of Au nanoparticles in the presence of Thorium aqua ions

    http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0906/0906.4268.pdf

    The SPP procress both produces tritium and stablizes it. The amount of tritium produced is a result of a mismatuch in the rates of production and stablization. The LENR reaction here is a result of a magnetic beam produced by gold nanoparticles excited in the visible EMF range using a laser.

    The nanoparticles are isolating and concentting the spin of the photons of light into a corherent magnetic beam. This beam produces the fusion of deuterium as a reaction product. I ask you to look at this experiment again to understand how this LENR process works.

  • http://www.facebook.com/ian.walker.7140 Ian Walker

    Hi all

    The key factor Martin is explaining is the importance of high loading and why that last bit of loading is harder. Mike McKubre and others have said that we need high loading. Martin explains the importance of filling first the Octahedral and then tetrahedral interstitial chambers. This is where people should concentrate their research on how to better load those tetrahedral interstitial chambers.

    Kind Regards walker

    • Dr. Mike

      Ian,
      High loading definitely appears to be a requirement in the Pd-D system. However, there doesn’t appear to be enough hydrogen present in the Lugano reactor, or in replications, to achieve high loading in these Ni-H systems. One conclusion might be that the LENR effect in the Ni-H system is more of a surface effect where the hydrogen loading could be close to 100%. However, a surface LENR reaction does not seem consistent with the Lugano ICP data showing almost all of the Ni was converted to the Ni62 isotope. I don’t believe there is enough data available to know what loading is required in the Ni-H system.
      Dr. Mike

      • http://www.facebook.com/ian.walker.7140 Ian Walker

        Hi all

        In reply to Dr. Mike

        High loading is technique not volume, therefore like baking a cake it is not just the ingredients but how they are put together. The Palladium method is different to the Nickel method.

        In palladium as per Fleischmann and Pons electrolysis is predominantly used to pump hydrogen in to solid metal: strip, wire or cube. How it then congregates in the octahedral, means it will migrate to the vast number sites away from the surface before it will be forced to start occupying tetrahedral sites, so it takes longer and requires more volume of hydrogen/deuterium.

        In nickel as per Rossi’s E-Cat and Parkhomov’s replication granular nickel powder is used. By various methods such as high pressure hydrogen from a bottel and pump, by additions such LiAlH4 and pressure cooking.

        There are other methods, Mossier Boss’s co deposition, the methods Hagelstein and Swartz and Celani are using etc.

        All of these a fuel collection and preparation, gathering and mixing the ingredients but they all have to achieve the same result; filling the surface tetrahedral sites.

        If the effect is a surface phenomenon then getting the surface tetrahedral sites occupied is key before the next step, which is initiation. That some of the fuel preparation methods also initiate the effect is separate. The next bit is the method.

        Kind Regards walker

        • Dr. Mike

          Ian,
          A few comments:
          1. Pons and Fleischmann were using electrolysis to pump deuterium, not hydrogen, into the Pd (except in a few experiments where they used regular water in their cell plus a magnetic field).
          2. I agree that a thin layer of Pd covering another electrode material would probably result in a much earlier observation of the LENR effect as it should be easier to fully load the Pd.
          3. Assuming the LiAlH4 was the only source of hydrogen in the Lugano reactor (and definitely in the Parkhomov reactor), there wasn’t enough hydrogen available to load the entire volume of Ni to more than about 50%. I agree that the large surface area helps in loading the Ni with hydrogen, but I do not yet see an explanation why the Pd-D system needs >90% loading to achieve LENR, whereas it appears that the Ni-H system can operate at a much lower loading. I believe a “complete” theory will explain this sometime in the future.
          Dr. Mike

          • http://www.facebook.com/ian.walker.7140 Ian Walker

            Hi all

            In reply to Dr. Mike

            On point 1.
            If you look back I did use deuterium in some of my remarks but deuterium is an isotope of Hydrogen. In terms of the chemistry, which is what electrolysis is, then deuterium is just hydrogen. Its Isotopic nature becomes important at the point of ignition, though as Martin points out it has small effect on how readily it migrates in to the Palladium.

            On point 3.
            First of all we start with E=mc^2

            Now we consider each grain of Nickel fuel, some load readily others less so having a lower volume of Hydrogen is irrelevant. Some grains loaded to the required level others not at all. The statistical graph of percentage loading of the grains will probably be like the shape of half a bell curve. Would it be better to get high loading on all the grains? Sure but the energy level of E=mc^2 means it only needs to be true of a sample of the grains to produce a significant output and since the overall surface area of the powder grains is many factors of 10 far higher than surface area of an electrode we can safely say the loading volume required will be significantly lower. Also pressure and heat are the method of loading to powder, it maybe this is more effective than electrolysis.

            Kind Regards walker

            • Dr Mike

              Ian,
              Why would some grains of Ni load readily and others not at all? There might be a small variation in loading among the Ni grains (perhaps those particles with a larger surface to volume ratio being somewhat more loaded), but I wouldn’t expect the loading to vary greatly among Ni particles. What mechanism would you propose to cause hydrogen to diffuse into some Ni particles and not all Ni particles nearly equally?
              Dr. Mike

              • Obvious

                Dr. Mike and Ian, note that in one of Rossi’s patent applications, “no more than a trace amount of gaseous hydrogen” is specified, at least six times. This does not sound like a statement implying that hydrogen is a large component of the fuel.

                Hydrogen loaded nickel powder is also specified in one version. As we know, not much hydrogen can be loaded into nickel powder, and less will stay there long enough to be poured into something.

                Food for thought.

                • Dr. Mike

                  Obvious,
                  Rossi’s use of the term “trace” in his patent application is one of the reasons his patent application was denied for failing to disclose fully the invention. (I believe Rossi intentionally did not disclose the details of his invention.) If only a little hydrogen is needed, then one might conclude it is likely that the LENR effect is a surface reaction in the NI-H system. However, this conclusion does not appear to be consistent with the ICP data from the Lugano report that showed all of the Ni was converted to the Ni62 isotope.
                  Dr. Mike

                • Obvious

                  We do not know that H is what is being used directly to achieve that result. More likely it a link in a chain of neccesary events. Perhaps if there is too much H, the reaction is stifled.

              • http://www.facebook.com/ian.walker.7140 Ian Walker

                Hi all

                In repy to Dr Mike

                E=mc^2, consider it for a second. Most people do not understand what that means.

                Then consider what percentage of the mass of a fission bomb’s nuclear material that is necessary to be converted to energy in order to wipe a city off the face of the earth. Like say Hiroshima.

                https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/hiroshima-little-boy-atomic-bomb-physics-help.587096/

                As I point out the loading percentage that reaches the desired level of tetrahedral sites is a half a bell curve. With only the very tip of the bell reaching a level of saturation enough to release energy. If all the mass of Rossi or any one else’s replication was to reach a full loading level then the potential energy release would be frightening.

                BUT THEY DONT! So happy smilies for us all! Yay 🙂 🙂 🙂

                Though I need to add in the proviso YET! 🙁

                That said a few do reach the top of that bell curve!

                But this is all just loading. Putting together and mixing the ingredients for a cake. The next stage is to bake the cake. What that is, is still propriety IP and or yet to be understood.

                I think it is just a question of squeeze. Using heat or magnetics or light.

                Kind Regards walker

                • Dr. Mike

                  Ian,
                  I don’t agree with your assumption that the loading is a “half of a bell curve”. The mathematics of diffusion does not lead to a “half of a bell curve” distribution for the loading. Diffusion should result in a Gaussian distribution of the hydrogen from the Ni surface to the interior, but if the diffusion length is significantly grater than the particle size, the distribution of hydrogen atoms should be fairly uniform over all Ni particles. I would expect the hydrogen loading is fairly uniform, but only a small percentage of the loaded hydrogen atoms acquire the excess energy needed for a fusion reaction. (This energy distribution may be a half of a bell curve with only the tail of the curve representing those hydrogen atoms with excess energy sufficient for a fusion reaction.) The data from the Pons-Fleischmann experiments in the Pd-D system indicate that once loading is above 90-95%, some deuterium atoms have the energy to fuse. Loading at a high percentage does not mean all deuterium atoms will fuse simultaneously. The limited data from results in the Ni-H system indicate that the LENR effect can be observed at a lower loading factor. Eventually a LENR theory will explain these results.
                  Dr. Mike

                • Mats002

                  Hi Dr Mike and Ian, I have read about the need of high loading at 90-95% for PdD system but how to measure the rate? It is not obvious to me how to do that.

                • Dr. Mike

                  Mats0002,
                  I’m not sure what analytical method was used to measure the deuterium loading. Perhaps you would have to go back some of the papers published in the early to mid 90’s to see what method was being used.
                  Dr. Mike

  • Mike Henderson

    Interesting theory … like squeezing a watermelon seed, a proton in the octahedral space in a FCC lattice is fired directly toward another that is held in the smaller tetrahedral space.

    I would add lattice vibrations to the analysis as contributing to the energetics of the acceleration.

    • Dr. Mike

      Mike,
      I agree. A theory needs to explain the magnitude of lattice vibrations (from heat and/or electromagnetic stimulation) needed to achieve a LENR effect. One thing really good about this theory is that it should be able to predict what other materials might have a lattice amendable to achieving LENR.
      Dr. Mike

  • Roland

    Someone please suggest to Mart that he improve the audio quality so that he becomes intelligible.

    • http://www.facebook.com/ian.walker.7140 Ian Walker

      Hi all

      In reply to Roland.

      I found the audio and his narration very clear. Perhaps something wrong with your computers audio codecs or your settings?

      Kind Regards walker

      • Dr. Mike

        I also found the audio acceptable with the volume turned up near the max.

    • Owen Geiger

      Agreed. Terrible audio. I can barely hear him at all on my laptop.

  • http://www.lenrnews.eu/lenr-summary-for-policy-makers/ AlainCo

    note that this is a proposed explanation.
    proposing an explanation today is very risky.