Guideline Document for Basic Nickel-Lithium Aluminum Hydride Reactor Based on Rossi’s E-Cat (Hank Mills)

The following article was submitted by Hank Mills. 

Guideline Document for Basic Nickel-Lithium Aluminum Hydride Reactor Based on Rossi’s E-Cat

by Hank Mills

ECAT-Ni-LiAlH4.doc Version .9 ALPHA

(WARNING:  The following information has been gathered from studying published replication reports, discussion with replicators and others familiar with replication efforts — not all of which have been made public at this point. This article reflects my own understanding and interpretation of information I have studied, and I am solely responsible for it.

This document is not finalized and may contain errors, inaccuracies, or incorrect information and does not contain the information needed for an exact replication of Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat. Following these instructions or utilizing the information contained does not guarantee a successful replication. Also, the author accepts no responsibility for any accidents, injuries, property damage that may result from any test or experiment conducted. Only professionals in laboratory settings with experience in conducting potentially dangerous experiments should attempt replication. Power supplies, Nickel powder, lithium aluminum hydride, and other components can be harmful or lethal if used inappropriately.)

Disclaimer – All replications of the Ni-LiAlH4 high temperature E-Cat should be performed for non-commercial, non-profit research purposes, unless contact is made with representatives of Industrial Heat LLC and specific agreements are reached. Researchers should respect the work and investment of Andrea Rossi and Industrial Heat.

Definition

The E-Cat is an LENR or “Cold Fusion” technology, invented and developed by Andrea Rossi, that produces heat far in excess of that explicable by any conventional chemistry. Grams of fuel in an E-Cat have been shown, over long duration testing, to release energy magnitudes greater than any chemical reaction. The constituents of the fuel – Nickel powder (Ni) and lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4) – are inexpensive, commonly available, and non-radioactive.  A specific version of the technology that is designed to operate at extremely high temperatures (beyond 1400C) named the “Hot Cat” or “high temperature E-Cat” is the focus of this document.

These high temperature reactors seem to be activated, controlled, and stimulated via a combination of heat and electromagnetic fields provided by electrical resistors. The massive heat output possible with the E-Cat (potentially far beyond kilowatts of heat per gram of fuel) seems to be accompanied without reported harmful radiation emitted from the thin walls of the reactor or production of nuclear waste products.  The ratio of energy input to energy produced (COP or Coefficient Of Performance) can be varied and controlled, ranging from a COP of less than ten, to the near-infinite COP of a hot cat in self-sustaining mode producing heat output with no external input.

Basic Device Overview

In a nutshell, a high temperature E-Cat is composed of a reactor core, typically tube shaped, made out of a material resistant to high temperatures such as alumina or certain steel alloys. Alumina seems to be preferred by Andrea Rossi in the quest for long term reliability, despite other researchers using non-magnetic stainless steels with some success. Each end of the tube, if more than one opening exists, is sealed via one of several potential methods to prevent hydrogen from escaping and outside atmospheric gases from entering. The size of the core of E-Cat reactors has always been small – varying from the size of a D-Cell battery to a soda can, although larger and smaller reactors may very well be possible to construct. The high temperature E-Cat reactors focused on in this paper have smaller diameter but longer cores – the Hot Cat tested in the Lugano Report was nicknamed the “Dog Bone” by some researchers due to having a thin middle and larger end caps. Wrapped around the reactor body – or embedded in the alumina walls in some variations – are resistor wires. These are fed with electrical input resulting in the reactor core being exposed to heat and electromagnetic fields. The device in testing usually rests in open air supported by a heat resistant metal framework. Surface and internal temperatures may be measured with thermocouples, infrared cameras, or pyrometers.

Component Suggestions, Guidelines, and Recommendations

Andrea Rossi has built and tested countless versions of E-Cat devices that vary to some degree in shape, materials, reactor housing design, type of stimulation, fuel delivery system, and fuel (powder) composition. This document is focused on the factors that may allow for a successful replication of the Ni-LiAlH4 fueled high temperature E-Cat. The exact variables involved to generate excess heat from replications of this system are not completely pinned down at this time. However, replication efforts so far seem to indicate success is not exceedingly difficult to achieve (in the worst case) and potentially easy to achieve with some effort (in the best case).

Reactor Core Housing – Pure aluminum oxide (alumina) tubes for reactor cores can be purchased relatively affordably from a variety of online sources. Pure alumina, greater than 99% purity, offers the highest melting temperature and a better barrier to stop hydrogen from escaping the reactor. Certain replicators, however, have utilized other materials such as non-magnetic steel alloys or lower grades of alumina that have greater amounts of impurities. It has been suggested in conversation with successful replicators that refractory cements containing a high proportion of magnesium should be avoided, though the reason for this is unknown. These variations do not seem to prohibit successful production of excess heat from current knowledge. In some setups, alumina reactor cores may have a thin internal core (non-magnetic stainless steel or alumina) to hold the fuel. To provide thermal insulation (so the reactor can be heated using less electrical input) or protect the resistor wire an alumina sleeve is sometimes placed over the main reactor tube. The sleeve may prevent “hot spots” that form on the reactor surface from super heating portions of the resistors, increasing their resistance, and burning them out. An insulating sheath of Alumina or refractory cement is obviously required if a steel tube fuel containment is used, to prevent short-circuiting the bare Kanthal Nichrome alloy  heating wires.

Reactor Core Sealant – A variety of methods can be used to seal the ends of the reactor casing or shell. High temperature alumina cements have been used as sealants in both actual high temperature E-Cat devices constructed by Rossi and replications by third parties. However, if water is allowed to come into contact with the LiAlH4 contained in the fuel, the hydrogen may be prematurely released or, in the worst case, an explosion may take place. Fillers, in the form of alumina rods, may be used to create a barrier or fill space between seals and the fuel. In other tests, Swagelok compression fittings have been used with alumina tubes to produce very tight seals capable of withstanding very high levels of hydrogen pressure. The exact quality of the seal needed and the degree of hydrogen impermeability is  unknown. If steel seals, such as Swagelok compression fittings (that creature a pressure weld in alumina) are utilized, their temperature may need to maintained below 500C. Beyond said temperature hydrogen is capable of migrating through the material. If the reactor tube is long and a few inches of distance are between the portion of the reactor heated by the resistor and the Swagelok, a lower temperature can be maintained. The Martin Fleishman Memorial Project deserves credit for coming up with the Swagelok sealing method that seems to contain the hydrogen pressure very well at high PSI.

By using long alumina tubes in his ‘dog-bone’ reactor Alexander Parkhomov has managed to reduce the temperature at the extremities of the system to around 50C, enabling high-temperature epoxy to be employed as a sealing agent.

Alan Smith, researcher and experimentalist, also offers the following advice: “If the central core of a dog-bone is made in 3 parts, a short central section where the fuel is held and a longer “outboard” tube on each side, the simplest way to assemble the reactor is to slide these three sections onto a steel rod – like beads on a string – and then build up the first outer layer of alumina cement to hold it all together. Leave a small (2mm) gap between where the inner tubes meet to avoid expansion problems when the assembly gets very hot. Wind the heating coil onto this assembly next, and then add the outer layer of cement covering and protecting the heater wires. Twist two strands of heater wire together where they enter/exit the cement. This reduces the resistance of the parts that are exposed to air and keeps them cooler than the central part. Researchers on a tight budget might consider using two seperate “interlaced” heater coils (like two strands of DNA) driving each seperate winding using an 800 watt domestic dimmer triac. Double triacs and the ensuring “cross talk” of EM fields should result in a fuzzier current trace and also be relatively cheap to assemble.”

“The three piece method as used by Alexander Parkhomov helps to keep the center section hot while the outer ends are cool enough to plug with epoxy. Fuel loads can be wrapped in scap of aluminum foil and pushed into place with a rod – in the same way the ash can be pushed out and the reactor reloaded after removing the epoxy plug with a little blowtorch to apply local heat.”

Resistor Wire – A wide variety of electrically resistant materials can be used to heat the reactor and provide electromagnetic stimulation. Kanthal A1 has proven capable of withstanding high temperatures far beyond 1000C for extended periods of time (days). The material has a maximum operating temperature of 1400C and a melting temperature of 1500C. At such high temperatures the mechanical flexing or movement of the wires must be taken into account, and due to oxidation from the atmosphere the wire may have a limited lifespan (days or hours). For this reason and to reduce the heat of totally exposed parts of the element and at the point where the heater wires are joined to normal copper power leads AP and others have used twisted double strands of Kanthal wire where this is outside the alumina sheath. The main benefits of Kanthal are very low cost and availability. Other materials, such as silicon carbide have much higher melting points and can operate at extreme temperatures for long periods of time – perhaps months. Their drawbacks, however, are cost (much more expensive than Kanthal), fragility (they can break even before being heated if not handled with care), and availability (you may have to have a custom resistor designed for your individual reactor). Thus their use is not advised for prototype systems in a laboratory environment.

Power Supply – Successful tests of high temperature E-Cat devices are suggested to have taken place using heat alone (via direct current). However, Alexander Parkhomov, and others with firsthand experience with these systems recommend “dirty” or “chopped” alternating current with a wide scattering of harmonic waveforms. [Note – chopped refers to the sliced-up appearance of the normal 60cps sine wave when interrupted by the action of a thyristor. "Dirty,” refers to the fuzzy –when seen on a scope – overlay of transient harmonics produced by electrical noise in the system.] A thyristor based power supply can provide such dirty AC power. It has been suggested that in each high temperature E-Cat certain harmonics or frequencies in the broad array of noise may be the most effective. Due to this, having the dirtiest power supply possible may be useful. Andrea Rossi is thought to have successfully isolated the most effective harmonic waveforms and/or frequencies for each of his specific reactors (perhaps matching their size, shape, or geometry). He seems to be able to utilize these frequencies to jump-start the reactions and generate excess heat more quickly in addition to controlling the reactions.

Fuel Component Number #1 — Nickel

(WARNING: Powdered nickel is toxic and potentially harmful to human health.)

The high temperature E-Cat utilizes carbonyl nickel powder that is similar to many varieties commercially available. These powders have a few features in common: they have an average particle size of a few to several microns (maybe 2 to 20 as a rough estimate), they contain spike like filaments or tubercles on their surface that may be important for a variety of reasons, and many of them due to their manufacturing process contain some amount of carbon surface contamination. These surface features may be more important during certain portions of the heating process (before the nickel begins to sinter or melt therefore damaging or destroying them) than at later stages when they are covered with the liquid aluminum and lithium. The best variety or brand of carbonyl nickel to use has yet to be determined. One trusted source has indicated that the smaller the average particle size the better. Others have speculated that having a scattering of particle sizes may be useful in creating the solid but porous matrix of nickel that is produced in the center of the reactor. When possible, a number of different types of nickel powder should be tested. Pioneer workers in the Ni/H fusion field such as Professor Focardi made their own finely divided nickel powder by precipitating nickel from solutions of nickel compound, but this laborious method is unlikely to supply enough material for commercial machines like Rossi’s 1MW reactor

Fuel Component Number #2 — Lithium Aluminum Hydride

(WARNING: LiAlH4 is a potentially dangerous chemical that can kill if breathed in and can react with heat or moisture to explode.)

The earliest high temperature E-Cat devices seemed to have contained lithium, but were fueled with hydrogen via an external tank. Later reactors utilized solid tablets of LiAlH4 that released hydrogen into the reactor core, but may not have had as extensive contact with the nickel powder. The most recent models contain LiAlH4 in the form of a powder mixed in with the nickel. There are multiple pieces of evidence for this. In the Cook-Rossi paper, the E-Cat is specified as using LiAlH4, the weight ratios of elements found in the Lugano report suggest LiAlH4 was used, and the Chlorine found in the Lugano fuel is a contaminate from the production of LiAlH4.

Lithium aluminum hydride, or LiAlH4 (also referred to as LAH, Lithium alanate, or Lithium tetrahydroaluminate) releases the majority of the hydrogen it contains in three different temperature ranges starting at around 150 – 170C. The release of the hydrogen initially creates high pressure in the reactor. The degree of pressure can vary dramatically depending on the amount of LAH utilized, the amount of free space in the reactor core, the rate of pressure leakage, and other factors). As the reactor warms, some portion of the hydrogen is taken into the lattice structure of the nickel, thus eventually contributing to a reduction of pressure. The lithium and aluminum eventually melt and coat the nickel particles and the inner surface of the reactor in a coating of metal alloy – potentially containing even more hydrogen. During the heating process, it is also thought that the Lithium and Aluminum may undergo reactions with any atmospheric gases (oxygen and nitrogen) in the reactor and absorb them which lowers the pressure inside the reactor even further. At a certain stage the lithium in the reactor becomes vaporous (the timing or temperature at which this happens is under debate) and penetrates every bit of free space in the reactor core.

A possible issue to consider with LiAlH4 is particle size. The size of LiAlH4 particles vary dramatically from different suppliers anywhere from around ten micrometers to a hundred and fifty or greater. Ball milling can reduce the particle size of LiAlH4 to a minimum size of around two micrometers. Although there is no proof that reducing the particle size enhances the excess heat effect, doing so is known to slightly reduce the temperature at which hydrogen is emitted. Parkhomov grinds his fuel together with a mortar and pestle. Although this may not be the most effective way of reducing the particle size of LiAlH4, he has had phenomenal success in replicating the hot cat. So maybe reducing the particle size is important.

Non-Critical Possible Fuel Components: Iron (Fe) and Magnesium (Mg)

These components are not critical for building powerful E-Cat replications capable of producing massive excess heat. However, they may have been present in the fuel of the Lugano device. There has been a great deal of speculation as to what functions they may perform in the fuel of the reactor, if any at all. There are a few facts about these elements that should be addressed. First, nano-sized Fe powder mixed in with LiAlH4 improves the hydrogen desorption performance of the chemical by lowering the temperature it releases hydrogen. A combination of Mg and Lithium Aluminum Hydride can also improve performance according to unrelated research. This may be important if increasing hydrogen pressure at lower temperatures is important during certain phases of loading the hydrogen into the nickel lattice. In addition, Iron may serve to reduce the degree of sintering in the nickel powder, according to certain researchers. This may keep channels open so lithium-aluminum alloy or lithium vapor can flow more freely into the nickel. The fact that iron can also be a contaminant from a melted steel inner reactor core should not be overlooked.

Again, these elements should not be considered as required for successful replications. Alexander Parkhomov and others have produced phenomenal results with Ni-LiAlH4 alone.

Fuel Ratio

In the successful replications of the high temperature E-Cat, 90% Ni and 10% LiAlH4 is placed into the reactor, by weight. So far, this seems like the main fuel ratio tested. What happens if this fuel ratio is adjusted is unknown. One consequence, most likely, would be an increase in initial hydrogen pressure if the percentage of LiAlH4 is increased. This may or may not enhance the heat producing effect. If the reactor walls are extremely thin, however, too high of pressure may result in a failure of containment.

Input Power Measurement and Temperature Monitoring

There are many tools and pieces of equipment at the disposal of replicators to measure the input power and monitor the temperature of the reactor. In the simplest experiment to detect the massive HAD (Heat After Death) produced in self sustain mode – when the reactor is continuing to maintain or gain in temperature with no input – very sophisticated equipment may not be required. In such a setup, the exact amount of power used to heat the device is not required to be known – although if the budget allows such data can be useful. But a reasonably accurate method of measuring and recording the temperature of reactor is needed. For example, if a reactor is heated to a very high temperature of over 1300C on the exterior surface, the temperature will rapidly fall when external power is removed. In a “control” reactor with nickel only and no LiAlH4, the temperature will plummet rapidly several hundred degrees and then the rate of temperature fall will slow as the reactor nears an equilibrium with the environment. In a fueled run, if the nuclear reactions taking place are strong enough to allow for self sustained operation, there will be an initial temperature drop when the external power is removed. Then the temperature will stop dropping and maintain or increase. The power allowing for this to take place is from the Rossi Effect. Even if the nuclear reactions inside the reactor are not strong enough to allow for a constant maintenance of temperature for a period of time (one of the strongest forms of evidence for cold fusion), the fall of temperature in the fueled run may take place more slowly than in the control run. A few well placed thermocouples feeding data into a laptop may suffice for this test. It is known that Rossi et al use Platinum thermocouples since these have a longer life when exposed to the reactor environment.

If researchers desire to perform more complicated tests determining COP via various types of calorimetry, the equipment will need to be more sophisticated, the test setup more complex, and the methodology more rigorous.

Overall Cost of Setup

The cost of performing a replication of a Ni-LiAlH4 high temperature E-Cat should be miniscule for a company, university, or research institute. If basic power supplies, measurement equipment, and data acquisition systems are available, the cost of tubing, sealant, resistor wire, and fuel should be far under a few hundred dollars. In larger quantities, if a long series of tests are to be performed, the cost per component is reduced. For so little money, there is no excuse for experienced, professional scientists in laboratory settings not to replicate. There is no technology that offers as many benefits as the E-Cat that can be researched on such a tiny budget. Even a project to produce a tiny improvement in the efficiency of a solar panel would probably cost more.

Theory of the Ni-LiAlH4 E-Cat

The internet is full of speculation about what phenomena may allow for nuclear reactions to take place inside the E-Cat. Andrea Rossi and Norman Cook have written and published a paper detailing certain reactions between protons and the Lithium 7 isotope that are proposed to produce a huge release of energy (via alpha particles with mega-electron volts of energy) but without any radiation escaping the reactor. This reaction (7Li4+p —> 8Be4 —> 2á (17.26 MeV)  is discussed exhaustively, along with how a reverse Mössbauer effect  may be responsible for the production of heat without gamma ray production. Other reactions with nickel isotopes are also discussed. What the paper does not explain is the source of the protons or how they are capable of entering the nucleus of the lithium. The authors do not provide any solution to how the Coulomb Barrier is breached. An unknown mechanism must be allowing the proton to overcome the electric repulsion of the nucleus. Various references to scientists who have suggested explanations, such as Ikegami’s Chemonuclear Reactions, are provided. Andrea Rossi has said an additional paper is forthcoming.

A theory is useful in many ways, but a fully proven explanation (Rossi has since claimed to have detected helium in his reactor) is not required to verify that anomalous nuclear reactions are taking place in the Ni-LiAlH4 hot cat. Due to the tiny amount of fuel being used (a gram or less) and massive amount of power produced over extended periods of time, any chemical source of energy can be ruled out. The energy density and power produced is simply immense to the point of the one gram of fuel being equivalent to gallons or barrels of gasoline.

Once the world has fully accepted the E-Cat technology as legitimate and real, there will be an eternity for scientists to determine the precise reactions taking place. While that is taking place, Industrial Heat and any other companies they choose to associate with can further develop the technology so that it can enter the marketplace.

Operation of the Reactor

The operating characteristics and dynamics of a high temperature E-Cat, or even a low temperature model, are not fully understood. There are certain bits of information that are known, however. The details may vary depending on the construction of device, the cycles of heating, the ratio of Ni to LiAlH4, and many other issues.

* The reactor, power supply, computers, sensors, and other devices are set up. Radiation detectors and neutron detectors should also be set up as a precaution, although in countless tests E-Cat devices have proven to emit no radiation into the environment.

* The sealed reactor is heated via the electrical resistors. The power to the resistor(s) may be controlled manually with a variac or with an automated programmable controller. As mentioned before, using a thyristor or other method of producing “dirty” AC with a wide variety of harmonics may be useful in enhancing the effect.

* The sealed reactor is heated to a certain temperature at a slow pace to allow for the absorption of hydrogen into the nickel. The heating phase can last several hours or even an entire day or longer. By allowing the process to take place more slowly, the hydrogen may more fully and completely penetrate the nickel lattice. Warnings have been given that not allowing enough time for the hydrogen to soak into the nickel may result in no excess heat or “flash” generation of skin effect hot spots. This may be destructive to your reactor.

* Between 100C and 200C (the precise temperatures and graphs can be found online) the majority of hydrogen is released from the LiAlH4. This increases the pressure up to several hundred PSI depending on the amount of space in the reactor (including empty volume) and the amount of LiAlH4. Over time, the absorption of hydrogen and the scrubbing of oxygen and nitrogen reduce the pressure inside the reactor core. Leaks may also reduce pressure, but stair stepping and temporary increases in pressure indicate that leakage cannot explain the majority of the drop in pressure. In some replications, the pressure has dropped to below atmospheric. This may of course be due to an equipment fault. It certainly puzzles many. We do not know what pressure levels Andrea Rossi has found in the Ni-LiAlH4 reactors he has built. Certain replicators such as Alexander Parkhomov have indicated that the pressure may need to drop to low levels or a partial vacuum for the excess heat effects to begin. Other researchers think such low pressures are not required.

* In Alexander Parkhomov’s experiments, very high COPs and excess heat producing are found only when the external temperature of the reactor is around 1200C and beyond. Lower levels of excess heat can be found at reduced temperatures. Other researchers have found that at these high temperatures sudden bursts of heat may take place. Runaways of nuclear reactions in isolated areas of the reactor may also occur at such extreme temperatures, breaching containment. However, other reports have indicated certain researchers are obtaining high output and bursts of heat at lower temperatures of around 700C.

* In one of Alexander Parkhomov’s tests, the reactor was taken up to an external temperature of 1290C. The resistor broke, and the temperature of the reactor slightly dropped. However, it then self-sustained producing Heat After Death at 1200C for eight minutes. During this time, if no excess heat had been produced, the temperature of the reactor would have dropped far below 1000C. Andrea Rossi has stated that high temperature E-Cat reactors can self-sustain for hours. However, those are reactors that are being carefully controlled; prototype reactors might simply self-sustain for shorter periods and then either surge upwards in temperature or drop to room temperature. The earliest high temperature E-Cat reactors, which used external tanks of hydrogen, repeatedly increased in temperature until the alumina melted and the steel, “melted and ran like hot wax.” That indicates temperatures that can melt nickel – which Rossi now states may exist in a molten form inside the high temperature E-Cat.

* If someone is fortunate, excess heat will become apparent. This can be detected in many ways. One of the simplest is to compare the input power and temperature to that of a calibration run. If the temperature of the fueled run is higher than the control run while consuming the same or less input power, excess heat may be produced. Other methods may show excess heat as well such as real time calorimetry. If excess heat does not show up at first, wait. The nuclear reactions may take time to start occurring – especially if the hydrogen has not had an adequate time to load. For some reason if they don’t, there are options: adjust the power input if possible to produce different harmonics, increase the amount of input if the reactor can tolerate the temperatures, or perform another run.

* Nothing is currently written in stone about how to make a Ni-LiAlH4 device produce excess heat. Although some researchers seem to have had many successful runs with relative ease, it may take many runs and adjustments (of types-brands of nickel, fuel ratios, particle sizes of LAH, specific harmonics) to produce excess heat. Another thing to try is reducing the pressure by allowing more dead space, or increasing the pressure by having more dead space. Do not give up if one test or a series of tests don’t work. Failures can teach us what to avoid. Eventually, if you perform enough experiments, you will detect excess heat – because the evidence the E-Cat technology works is now overwhelming.

Summary

1) Always perform control runs with nickel but no LiAlH4 to get graphs of power input and temperature.

2) Place .9 grams of carbonyl nickel into an alumina (or high temperature non-magnetic steel alloy) reactor tube along with .1 grams of LiAlH4. Reduce the amount but keep the same ratio if the volume of fuel does not fit into the reactor core.

3) Secure a resistor wire, potentially Kanthal A1, around the reactor core and connect to a power supply.

4) Feed with dirty, chopped AC power with a wide array of harmonic frequencies. Slowly heat the reactor to 200C over a period of hours and continue to gradually increase the temperature of the reactor.

5) Compare temperature and power input to control run and perform whatever type of calorimetry you prefer.

6) If there is no sign of excess heat at lower temperatures (600-700C) slowly increase the temperature to 1300C. Consider performing tests to look for HAD.

7) If your experiment is a success, repeat it. If your experiment is a failure, try again changing a variable.

 Final Safety Warning

There are all sorts of safety considerations to make when working to replicate a device that utilizes electricity and toxic or dangerous chemicals. Lab coats, gloves, face shields, blast shields, hoods, respirators, eye protection, and other equipment should be available in a research laboratory. If you are a professional working in a laboratory environment, you probably know all about these things. If you are an amateur and don’t know what you are doing, then don’t risk your property, health, or life by attempting to replicate. One breath of LiAlH4 can kill you, accidentally exposing it to excessive humidity can start a fire or trigger an explosion, and even contact with your skin can be harmful. Using power supplies without the proper experience and without the proper safe guards can result in fire or electrocution. A reactor blowing up could send shrapnel into your eyes.

 Remember, one horrible accident could set back cold fusion research significantly. 

 New Technology To End Energy Scarcity

Human civilization runs on energy. Coal, oil, gas, solar, wind, and conventional dangerous nuclear power produces the energy that keeps the world moving. These technologies all have drawbacks, however. Ni-LiAlH4 reactors only have advantages. No other energy solution offers kilowatts of constant heat at ultra high temperatures from grams of virtually free or extremely low cost fuel. This heat is also portable, compact, and comes with no radioactivity or pollution.

The Rossi Effect is basically anti-matter – a complete refutation – to every negative aspect of traditional nuclear power. If the world would recognize the reality of the E-Cat, the age of energy scarcity could come to a rapid end. In time, electrical generating plants that use fossil fuels could be phased out, all fission based nuclear power plants could be decommissioned, and Ni-LiAlH4 based vehicles could start being sold by the millions.

This amazing future can be accelerated if replications of the Rossi Effect start appearing by the dozens and then by the hundreds. When enough successful excess heat generating reactors start appearing all across the globe, the mainstream media and scientific community will be forced to take notice. Due to the extreme significance of this technology – it makes hot fusion reactors that require billions of dollars look ridiculous – a fundamental shift in our civilization may take place.

Instead of fear or uncertainty over the future, the E-Cat will have provided hope for a technological breakthrough that, if used appropriately, could assist us in solving countless problems facing humanity. Experiencing such a change of heart, brilliant minds around the world may unite to take this technology to the next level – perhaps allowing for the direct conversion of heat to electricity or direct production of electricity.

The E-Cat is coming. Let replications be the roar that lets her presence be known.

Thanks and Credits

The information gathered and published in this document come from a wide array of sources: bloggers, researchers, replicators, papers published online, etc. In general, I’d like to thank Alexander Parkhomov, the members of the Martin Fleishman Memorial Project, Norman Cook, and many other individuals active in the field who are openly sharing their findings, papers, and test results.  Also, I would like to thank all of the individuals who spend countless hours each day searching for news and updates to share with the world: for example, Peter Gluck, Mats Lewan, Frank Acland, Ruby Carat, David Nygren, etc. I would also like to thank “Cures” of the Cobraf forum for his many fascinating posts detailing his experience with early high temperature E-Cats. In addition, I would like to thank Frank Acland of E-Cat World for taking the time to edit this paper and post it on his website. I would also like to say thank you to Alan Smith of Leap Forward Laboratories for his time, contributions, and technical advice.

Important Links and References

Lugano Report http://www.elforsk.se/Global/Omv%C3%A4rld_system/filer/LuganoReportSubmit.pdf

Norman Cook – Andrea Rossi Paper http://arxiv.org/abs/1504.01261

Parkhomov Replication Paper https://yadi.sk/d/_agVKcYdg5GdH

Lithium Aluminum Hydride http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithium_aluminium_hydride

LiAlH4 Particle Size Paper http://www.linknovate.com/publication/decomposition-behavior-of-unmilled-and-ball-milled-lithium-alanate-lialh4-including-long-term-storage-and-moisture-effects-2519881/

Kanthal A1 http://kanthal.com/en/products/material-datasheets/strip/kanthal-a-1/

Silicon Carbide http://kanthal.com/en/products/furnace-products-and-heating-systems/electric-heating-elements/silicon-carbide-heating-elements/

Thyristor  http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/power/thyristor.html

E-Cat World

Martin Fleischmann Memorial Project

LENR Forum

Journal of Nuclear Physics

 

 

  • http://renewable.50webs.com/ Christopher Calder

    There is no evidence that Industrial Heat has broken off with Rossi. As of now, that is just a rumor. The year long test results should be available soon. Those results will tell us if the critics or Rossi is correct. I am agnostic until the results are in.

    • Frank Acland

      It’s completely implausible to me that he has broken off with IH. Rossi has stated multiple times in the last couple of weeks on the JONP the IH is the exclusive licensee for E-Cat products in the USA and other territories. Then IH comes out (albeit prematurely, by mistake) with a new name: Lux Energy, just when Rossi is talking about the E-Cat X being able to produce light (lux) as well as heat and electricity.

      If there had been a break I am sure that one or both would have acknowledged it publicly, just like Rossi did in 2011 when the relationship with Defkalion fell apart.

  • Stephen

    Really well done. Thanks Hank.

  • Bruce Williams

    Hank, this is a brilliant piece of work, thanks a lot !

  • Alan Smith

    Definitely James. As Hank writes in his article, A fuzzy-output Triac-based power supply is definitely one way to supply the right kind of ‘trigger’ frequency. Maybe AR can tune into his systems resonant frequency in some way – like tuning in a radio – but every system would be a little different.- and I’m not sure how you tell apart from getting a bang- maybe the heating comes first and then at a critical temperature (which would possibly be around 700C) he twiddles the frequency generator and kicks off the LENR. But that is pure specualtion.

  • Dr. Mike

    Robert,
    This is speculation based on the amount of fuel and the large volume (as calculated) of the Lugano reactor relative to the Parkhomov reactor. The Al, Li and Fe in the Lugano fuel would have reacted to take N2 and O2 out of the reactor. The hydrogen should have preferentially diffused into the Ni. This leaves the reactor with few remaining gas molecules, no more than the Parkhomov reactor, but with over 10 times the volume. The operating pressure in the Lugano reactor was probably no more than 0.1 atmosphere based on the published Parkhomov pressure data.
    Dr. Mike

    • Obvious

      A significant portion of the volume of the Lugano reactor could have been taken up with the thermocouple or thermistor and its protection tube. It would have been nice to see how big it is was. It does, though, suggest the empty space was not consumed by a filler plug at the filling end. Which seems common in conceptual replications, along with another space filler at the opposite end. Lots of volume is safer, anyways.

  • Mytakeis

    “For so little money, there is no excuse for experienced, professional scientists in laboratory settings not to replicate.” Truer words were never spoken.

  • http://renewable.50webs.com/ Christopher Calder

    Rossi has spent years in this, and Defkalion as well. Outside replicators will have to burn up some personal calories getting the black box frequency generator right.

    • http://www.thinktankreport.com/ Phillip Power

      Yes, they would but I’m saying that that set of frequencies or their time-domain equivalent could be found by the above systematic search and perhaps in fairly short order. Such a search would suit more funded and established labs and we’d all expect to see the results published.

      As Hank suggests, It is yet to be clarified as to whether these “Rossi resonances” are a function of the geometry of any particular dog bone or whether they are derivable from more the fundamental chemical, magetic and nuclear properties of the ingredients. Either way, serous, publishable research could and should be done by the more mainstream research establishments on this aspect. That may be a way for them to redeem themselves for originally ignoring LENR.

      Looking again at more details of this, I am reminded of a paper by David J Nagel at http://www.infinite-energy.com/images/pdfs/Nagel118.pdf in which, amongst many other things, he emphasized the importance of measuring the performance of LENR cells on the much faster (than calorimetry) basis that transducers for sound, RF, infrared, x-rays and neutrons could provide. Yes, I know, there aren’t supposed to be any significant x-rays or neutron emissions from LENR but sensitive instruments may detect enough of them to signal peaks in the swept sine-wave spectrum from the above power amplifier tests and thus quickly tag the “Rossi resonances”.

      • Mike Henderson

        Note the chopped sine wave sketch in the foreground of this photo.

        http://www.ecat-thenewfire.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Laboratory.jpg

        • http://www.thinktankreport.com/ Phillip Power

          – Well, I can’t really see it but, if you can, it wouldn’t surprise me. My first guess would be that this is the result of a class “C” or “D” amplifier. Most of us former Hi-Fi buffs probably built our own class A or B audio amplifiers back in the day (in my case, class B the 70’s!) but amplifiers, audio, RF and other now span types “A” through “H” and beyond. A good article that I’ve just found is this:
          http://www.learnabout-electronics.org/Amplifiers/amplifiers56.php
          Anyway, by making use of pulse width modulation (PWM), class D and later amplifiers are able to achieve large power transfers at the cost of the “chopped” signal in your photo. Rossi is probably happy to leave the ripple in place because it probably generates some of the “dirty” components that Parkhomov is also happy to allow. A Fourier analyzer can readily show all the component frequencies, so using such an “imperfect but grunty” amplifier is probably good enough, even to locate the “Rossi resonances” in the first place.

          • Obvious

            That diagram looks like Rossi is examining sample rate aliasing of the AC waveform to me. There seems to be a sub-Gaussian AC square wave (or close to it), with a sample rate that when it is equal in period to the square pulse period, and the sample period starts at the beginning of one pulse, also captures combined + and – portions of the wave in successive pulses, so it aliases the voltage or current (or both)incorrectly. Whether he is engineering this or attempting to fix it could be contentious. If he has varying conduction periods, getting the sample rate correct to accurately measure power could be challenging. This could be a concern for logging data for a month for example, where 200 Hz sampling could generate massive files. 518400000 data points in 30 days for one channel at 200 Hz, for example. That waveform image might represent the effect of 250 Hz sampling at 50 Hz AC.

          • _Jim

            I am beginning to think that no one here has any experience with industrial controls used to control heating or heaters; all this wild conjecture of class D or class X devices is evidence of some fanciful thinking when simple Triac controls for control the operation of a resistive heater are all that is required.

            _Jim

            • http://www.thinktankreport.com/ Phillip Power

              FYI, I was working with SCRs as early as 1968, when they had only just appeared on the scene. But, in any case, we are not just talking about controlling a resistive heater, we are talking about exploiting the fact that the heating coil also amounts to an electromagnet and, by supplying a particular set of frequencies and amplitudes, the resulting alternating magnetic fields may well stimulate the LENR reaction over and above any purely heating effect. For the purpose of isolating those frequencies in the first place, a pure sine wave sweep would need to be made.

              Now, it may transpire that the answer is “the more the merrier” – i.e.that the Fourier spectrum of the magnetic field should be flat – as close to “white noise” as possible. And perhaps both Rossi and Brillouin have already proved (but not published) that. However, to prove it as sicentifically – and publically – as possible, some well equiped lab would have to do that experiment and to do that they would need a “clean” power amplifier that does not “color” in the input sine waves it is given. Such as a type B, C or D.

  • Andy Kumar

    Hank,
    Good effort. I am not qualified to rate the content (as I did not read it). My question, Hagelstein has been teaching CF101 at MIT forever. Shouldn’t he have more authoritative course materials available. He has trained a generation of bright CF researchers. Is his course available on MIT open course website?

  • Dr. Mike

    Hank,
    Thanks for taking the time to put together this summary of information that might be useful for those trying to replicate the Hot-cat. I have a few comments that might help improve your summary:
    1. In the “Definition” section you state: ” A specific version of the technology that is designed to operate at extremely high temperatures (beyond 1400C)…”. Since the Lugano measured temperatures have been shown to be incorrect, I don’t believe there is any evidence that a Hot-cat can be operated “beyond 1400C”.
    2. Somewhere in your paper you might want to point out that excess heat should begin to be observed in the 750-800C temperature range based on Figure 13 in Parkhomov’s paper.
    3. Your section titled “Input Power Measurement and Temperature Monitoring” actaully says nothing about input power measurement and temperature monitoring. In this section you might want to point out that the instrument(s) used to monitor input power should be compatible with the power supply used, that is, able to measure the power accurately in the waveform supplied to the heater wire. Also, a type K thermocouple is only rated to use up to 1250C. If it is desired to run a reactor above 1250C for any period of time, the big bucks should be spent to acquire a type R or type S thermocouple.
    4. In your discussion of the reactor design you don’t mention anything about the reactor volume and reactor volume to fuel weight ratios. The Lugano reactor used about 0.55gr of Ni and 0.06gr of LiAlH4 in a reactor cavity of 40-55cm3 (based on the external dimensions of the Al2O3 reactor, the density of Al2O3, and the weight of the Lugano reactor). Parkhomov used 0.64 gr of Ni with 0.06gr of LiAlH4 in a reactor volume of “a few cm3 including the manometer”. It might be good to specify a minimum reactor volume to fuel weight ratio of something like 4 ccm3/gr to ensure that pressures don’t go too high during the initial heating. Also, it appears that both the Lugano reactor and the Parkhomov reactor had sub-atmospheric pressures during high temperature operation. Until proven otherwise, it should be assumed that this is a favorable condition for getting the reactor to produce excess heat at high temperatures.
    Dr. Mike

  • http://renewable.50webs.com/ Christopher Calder

    The case for carbon comes from the fuel analysis conducted by a chemist on this forum, the fact that it would quickly get rid of free oxygen and is said to help split H2 into H1 (which may not be needed at that high a temperature), and the fact that NASA scientist Dr. Joseph M. Zawodny likes carbon for cold fusion using nickel and hydrogen gas. Rossi may not put any carbon in his latest fuel mix, but we don’t know for sure because it would be used up and out gasses so quickly. I remember seeing pictures of iron particles in spent fuel and what looked like steel particles, but I don’t remember the source, if it was from a Hot-Cat or the older lower temperature version. The case for iron is breaking H2 and the other qualities already mentioned. So if you tried 1 gram of 99.999% pure nickel powder in the 2 to 8 micron size, .1 gram of lithium aluminum hydride, .1 gram of pure iron powder, and .1 gram of pure carbon powder, I don’t think the additions would hurt and might help. Certainly the iron content is suggested by the Lugano test results.

    • Josh G

      Les Case also used Carbon as an important catalyst in his gaseous Ni-H system that was replicated at SRI. And then there was also Bob Greenyear’s revelation about the carbon cycle.

  • theBuckWheat

    Anyone contemplating a device that might have internal pressures of 200psi had better test a prototype in a safe environment at 400psi. Even a small device that suffers a rupture at 400psi can have shrapnel that can do as much damage as a bullet. Use appropriate engineering and don’t cut corners with caution. Having said that, may a thousand experiments bloom (and publish solid documentation)!

  • Bob Greenyer

    Thanks Hank for doing this work, it is important to aggregate this information

  • Gerard McEk

    Excellent work Hank, thank you for this. I am sure it will be used and if results come, I hope you will adapt it if needed.

  • Josh G

    Hank, this is important work — thank you for investing the time and energy!

    Have read or consulted the book that Roberto Ventola and Vessela Nikolova wrote trying to ‘reverse engineer’ an E-Cat? I don’t see it in your list of important links and references. The link to Nikolova’s blog post about it is below. Appears to be available on Amazon as an e-book. If any ECW regulars have read the book — what was your reaction? Maybe it’s garbage, but at first glance it looks like essential reading for anyone trying to do an e-cat replication (or understand how it works).

    http://www.ecat-thenewfire.com/blog/hot-cat-20-how-last-generation-ecat-are-made/

  • Bob Matulis

    Well done indeed!

  • Ophelia Rump

    That was well done!

  • http://renewable.50webs.com/ Christopher Calder

    Hank specifies no carbon powder in the fuel mix, which is surprising to me. I would use both carbon and iron.

    There is some indication that in the early days Rossi used potassium carbonate as a catalyst, and Rossi once speculated that was what Defkalion used in their first devices.

    As Rossi has changed his fuel mixture, all our guesses are probably pretty far from his latest, more stable, high COP fuel mixture. I asked Rossi how many grams of fuel in total he used in his North Carolina one megawatt reactor, but he would not even tell me that. I doubt he is going to spill the beans any time soon.

    • Alan Smith

      Hi Christopher. Although there is no mention of Carbon as a doping agent in a reactor system in Hank’s article, he does mention Carbonyl Nickel as a potential ‘hot fuel’ – and also that fact that it contains traces of Carbon as a by=product of the manufacturing process. There is no evidence to support the idea that Carbon, Iron, or even LiAlH are absolute ( in every case) requirements for Ni-H fusion. Include them by all means, but I suspect that when more Rossi information becomes available the chemical mix will get simpler, not more complex.

  • Obvious

    Try this site for designing heater coils. The original purpose was different, but the calculators work very well. Using the advanced setting, the length of the final coil will be calculated. This will ensure you don’t just design a coil only 1 cm long, or 2 m long by mistake. The last step is to ensure that the final heat flux/mm2 output is within the stability range of the wire, which the calculator does not do itself. (Don’t just shoot for the highest heat value you can get). If you have a known maximum wattage for your power supply, the coil resistance and wraps can be optimized to fit this requirement.

    (There are several calculators on the site)

    http://www.steam-engine.org/

    • Eyedoc

      Nice find , that’s quite helpful. Thanks

  • Daniel Maris

    Brilliant, Hank. A very important document in the history of LENR I think! Let’s hope lots of researchers have a go – and that they publicise their results.

  • Tom59

    WOW – nice job!! So looks like in a few years, high school teachers will present the Rossi effect in science classes. Student’s projects will focus on miles/milligram of fuel for the experimental car and on adopting a theory from the many on offer…. all seems to be just around the corner now.