Magnetic Control of LENR (Axil Axil)

The following post was submitted by Axil Axil

Andrea Rossi has stated that the input power to his reactor must be supplied using an AC source in order for the LENR reactor to be viable. Putting this clue together with the revelation from Francesco Piantelli that pressure change is required to fire up the LENR reaction can lead us to speculate about the reaction mechanisms involved connecting these seemingly unrelated revelation. But these tidbit of clues can be conceded within a theoretical context.

To start with, nanoparticle production in a supercritical medium is activated by a pressure and/or temperature change. Hydrogen is a supercritical medium in which hydrides of lithium and/or aluminum are dissolved. A change in pressure will produce nanoparticles of lithium and/or aluminum if a pressure wave of sufficient strength is broadcast through the hydrogen gas.

Nanoparticles are the mainstay of the LENR reaction since they produce Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs) within any aggregation of nanoparticles. An alternating current will produce a magnetic pressure wave in the hydrogen gas that will result the formation of a sound wave in the hydrogen with a wave length equal to the wavelength of the AC current that generates the sound wave pulse.

Alexander Parkhomov currently uses a 50 cycle sine wave. Rossi uses a more complicated pulsed waveform with a more rapid rise in voltage that would produce a more powerful acoustic wave.

This speculation regarding the shape of the input current waveform and the production of nanoparticles raises the possibility to allow a intelligent control circuit to control the LENR reaction by adjusting the production of hydride nanoparticles so that these nanoparticles are either stopped from forming to slow the reaction or to increase the strength of the reaction by adjusting the shape of the pulse to produce a more powerful acoustic wave in the hydrogen gas. This reaction control to support the power of the LENR reaction can be carried out while keeping the input power constant using an intelligent alternating current waveform generator.

Axil Axil

  • fritz194

    I don´t think that the power of a radio if-stage is enough to generate such eddy current. (And I have never seen this being a kid tuning whatever tunable)
    BTW I have seen it on tuning transformers in old TV sets.
    Coming back to LENR – there is lots of evidence/experimental observation that the effect is accompanied by rf emission – and it should be possible to harvest that directly – or make reactors designed specially for harvesting this.

  • Axil Axil

    On page 6 of the Lagano report, a square wave waveform more or less is shown for the input power feed to the heater. Why is Rossi doing this?

    • Obvious

      To mess with everyone. I would say it worked. That is the infamous “overload” image.

  • Nixter

    Heating a tube can cause it to resonate on its own, see this:

    • Obvious

      There is a thread on that somewhere.

  • Ted-X

    More control (with the same harmonics) would be possible using the welding transformer concept (essentially the same as the inductive furnaces for melting aluminum and copper alloys) – as in the attached image. The concept is publicly disclosed here to prevent it from patenting.
    The resonance happens as the triac interrupts the AC current; the back emf shoots up and the capacity and inductance of the coils correspond to a certain resonance frequency AND the corresponding HARMONICS.

  • fritz194

    I expect that high temperature gradients power some Nernst–Ettingshausen miracle – or the other way around – there seems to be thermomagnetic coupling in place – which could indicate that we have Mr. Nernst at work.

    • fritz194

      Would be awesome if its possible to get electric energy directly without using carnot cycle…..

  • fritz194

    I expect that the effect is triggered by harmonics caused by phase angle control.
    Driving the heating coil using a variac would be a control experiment.
    Because of the reported RF emissons with LENR its highly probably that you can control the NAE using RF. The NAE probably creates some negative resistance which enables resonance phenomenon.
    If you almost reach this effect – an external trigger rf can supply the necessary energy to keep the oscillation going. If you already have this emission – an external field can disturb that oscillation by saturation or whatever.
    I would expect that the rf emission is part of this process.
    It would be interesting to have a combined system with gas heating and excitation coil.
    I somewhat think that this rf emission is tightly coupled with the anomalous heating effect.
    You create somewhat cavities with certain resonance behaviour and quality/damping.
    As long as you keep “Q” (or self-damping) of this resonator low – you can precisely control the effect by external excitation – if “Q” is too high – the thing can be almost uncontrollable.
    By using special wire with appropriate temperature coefficient – you could implement somewhat feedback loop to avoid thermal runaway.
    Adapting the driving power to the actual wire resistance would keep the effect on a setpoint.
    Without any stimulation – I would expect that those NAE cavities stay passive until triggered or certain overheated – so you are not looking for the perfect NAE – but for the most controllable NAE.

  • Mike Ivanov

    Interesting, but without experimental support all these thoughts are only speculations. I do not see real benefit…

  • Ophelia Rump

    It would be interesting to mate to a thermoacoustic engine.

  • LuFong

    Will present a posters session at ICCF-19: Godes Brillouin Energy Test Results of CECR Hypothesis

  • Svein Arild Utne

    I got a 40 KHz transducer, wher will it be best to put it?
    Maybe at the cooler ends and have the membrane in contact with the alumina?

    It will only deliver a few watts, but maybe that is OK

  • Thomas Clarke

    The currents found in the Lugano test, given physical constraints on the number of turns, result in a few 10s of mT field max. That is very small, and not capable of inducing pressure waves in a core. By comparison an iron-cored solenoid would get up to 1.5T or so, and the high strength Niobium magnets get achieve around 7T. (Not certain what is current state of art).

    Further, higher frequencies will not result in higher fields. On the contrary, they result in lower currents in an inductor and therefore lower fields.

    Your speculations here fly in the face of simple quantitative analysis.

    • Axil Axil

      The folling reference defines the yjr SAW/

      “Ultrasonic atomization generally refers to a method for
      aerosol production induced by irradiating a fluid in
      order to destabilize its interface with acoustic energy
      at driving frequencies between 20 kHz to a few MHz
      , although novel technologies such as surface
      acoustic waves (SAWs) allow operation at higher
      frequencies above 10 MHz”

      It is not yet known what level of nanoparticle production is required, or how magnetic energy applied to the nanostructures on the nickel particles(tubercles) can produce that level of nanoparticle production. But I doubt that magnetic levels in the tesla range are required.

      Rather then use input power to produce SAW, there are better ways to produce SAW inside the reactor. Direct application of sound waves using a transducer seems to be both the most direct and the simplest way to try out first time out.

    • Andreas Moraitis

      That is correct for an air-cored coil. If we take, for example

      µr = 1.0000001 (relative magnetic permeability of air)
      µ0 = 4pi*10^-7 Vs/Am (magnetic field constant)
      N = 20 (number of turns)
      l = 0.2m (length of coil)
      I = 50 A (current)

      the magnetic flux density inside the coil would come to

      B = µr*µ0*(N/l)*I = 0.00628 Vs/m^2 = 6.28 mT

      Now consider that nickel has a relative permeability of 100 to 600, then we were theoretically at 0.628 to 3.77 T. Of course, there is only little Ni in the core, so that we had to reduce these values by an unknown amount. But nickel alloys can reach permeabilities that are three orders of magnitude higher than the permeability of pure Ni. See the table on p. 6 of this document:

      (Material / composition / µ max)

      “Permalloy 78 Ni(78%)Fe(22%) 100000
      Superpermalloy Ni(79%)Fe(16%)Mo(5%) 500000
      Mumetal Ni(77%)Fe(16%)Cu(5%)Cr(2%) 150000“

      With such materials high field strengths could be reached even if the core is not completely filled. I do not know, though, how powder without a binding agent would behave in comparison to bonded or bulk material. (Secondary idea: Maybe a static field would have unwanted effects on the powder, and that’s the reason why Rossi uses AC.) Temperature dependence of the magnetic permeability should also be taken into account, as several other factors.

  • I’m not clear about this one. What would be the same in the AC source and the hydrogen gas would be the frequency. The speed of sound in hydrogen at 20C (293K), 1At is 1270 m/s. At 1000C (1273K) it would be sqrt(1273/293)*1270 = 2647m/s. That gives a wavelength at 50Hz of 2647/50 = 53 m. Wouldn’t we be wanting wavelenghts more like 53mm – i.e. a frequency more like 50KHz?

    • US_Citizen71

      Ultimately I think you would want 1.420 GHz, the resonance frequency of hydrogen but that is still 21cm. Wouldn’t 53mm be something closer to 6 GHz?

      • No – not if we are talking propagation through gaseous hygrogen at 1000C (2647m/s). 53mm is about 2 inches. 1.420 GHz would translate to 1.86 microns in wavelength (under the above assumptions).

        • US_Citizen71

          I get it you are talking sound waves not electrons, my error.

    • Axil Axil

      I did not recommend a 50 cycle sine wave for the reasons that you mention. A far better waveform can be designed to reduce the input power to optimize the COP of the reactor. A sharp short high powered pulse will be ideal to both optimize and minimize the input power supplied to the reaction.As used by Brillouin Energy, a nanosecond pulse is more appropriate. It is conceivable that Alexander Parkhomov can lower the amount of power he supplies to his reaction if the waveform of that input current is optimized. A pulse length as short as possible either at 1 nanosecond or under will work out to be a 1 GHz or more.

      • BroKeeper

        Axil, I think the shape of the wave could
        resemble a square wave composed of many hydrogen’s harmonic frequencies. It would be very adaptive to changing high
        temperatures, hydrogen gas pressures and varying acoustical effects from the
        particle’s nano fractal crevasses.

      • Agaricus

        Rossi has mentioned the complexity of the system on many occasions. It’s possible that the EM waveform performs several functions simultaneously, such as modulation of nanoparticle surface phenomena such as SPPs, eddy current induction, magnetostriction, modification of sintering/melting point or even suspension of nickel nanoparticles, plus possibly others that are not known to outsiders.

        The driver waveform may therefore be a complex mixture of frequencies, each component of which has it’s own function.

  • kdk

    Interesting food for thought, as usual. There’s much more going on in the larger scale with electromagnetism and mixed mediums than most scientists have thought about.