Parkhomov’s Catnip: The Incredible Fuel of the E-Cat (Hank Mills)

The following post was submitted by Hank Mills.

Over the last twenty years, since 1989 when Pons and Fleischman introduced the technology to the world, researchers have dreamed of developing a robust and economically viable version of the technology. This dream has been realized with the Rossi Effect, and the experiments of Alexander Parkhomov seem to demonstrate these aspects of the technology in a simple manner. If his results can be successfully replicated, a black swan event may be the result.

So far, it seems that every single aspect of the nickel-lithium aluminum hydride reaction is positive.
The elements used in the Rossi Effect are cheap. Nine tenths of a gram of nickel and a tenth of a gram of lithium aluminum hydride costs almost nothing. In reality, the materials used to build the test setup (reactor core, heating elements, power supply, measurement devices) will cost ten thousand times more than the fuel, even though everything needed for a replication can probably be obtained for several hundred dollars.

When this technology hits the mainstream, there will be virtually no fuel cost. The power output from the gram of fuel used in a basic test setup is enormous. If Parkhomov’s data can be confirmed, a gram of fuel can produce at least a thousand watts of constant excess heat. The Lugano report indicates that this heat can continue to be produced for at least a month, if not much longer. The low temperature reactors used in the one megawatt plant (which might use more than one gram of fuel each) have been apparently been running for months, and may run a year without re-fueling.

In addition producing large amounts of excess power (it seems to be fairly easy to produce a COP of 2 to 3) the Rossi Effect enables systems to self-sustain. Test data from various E-Cat devices demonstrate this, and one of Parkhomov’s devices maintained a constant temperature for about eight minutes after the resistor blew. Andrea Rossi says reactors in his low temperature plant can self-sustain for very long periods of time, and we have been told individual “hot cats” can self-sustain for at least two hours.

Once the world recognizes this technology is as real as solar panels, there will be thousands of scientists and engineers working on these systems. I think that in a short period of time, devices will be made that are initially activated with external heat and then self-sustain for days at a time. This means practically infinite COP.

These benefits already make the E-Cat look awesome. But there are more that are seem to be coming to light.

Yesterday, I asked Andrea Rossi on the JONP whether fuel from one reactor can be taken and used in another reactor. He replied, “Yes, but we have to work on the charge before using it in another reactor.” This is a big deal. Right now, there is a dangerous chemical researchers have to use to build these systems – lithium aluminum hydride. This substance is not radioactive, but one breath of it can kill. Also, if exposed to water or humidity, it can cause fires or explosions. Parkhomov seems to have safely used this chemical many times in his experiments without taking almost any safety precautions, but one mistake or accident could result in a tragedy.

Work by various researchers show that several interesting things happen when nickel and lithium aluminum hydride are heated. At fairly low temperatures, hydrogen is released from the LaAlH4. This results in an increase in pressure. However, at a higher temperature, the lithium and aluminum start to melt and coat the individual nickel particles. The lithium in this LiAl alloy still contains hydrogen atoms. At a higher temperature, more hydrogen is released. Interestingly, at some point the hydrogen seems to start to be absorbed by the nickel and other gases (such as oxygen and nitrogen) are gettered (absorbed) by the aluminum which seems to cause a drop in pressure.

When the reactor cools, the fuel seems to consist of nickel particles with hydrogen locked inside, coated with lithium-aluminum alloy. No more LiAlH4 seems to exist, so the threat of toxicity or volatility from that chemical may be gone.

Recently we learned that during an experiment, Alexander Parkhomov had a failure of a resistor wire which caused the reactor to cool down to room temperature. When the heater was repaired and the reactor was heated up again, it started working as before. This suggests that raw chemicals may not be needed to build a device.

We know the fuel of the Lugano device was brought to the testers by Andrea Rossi contained in an envelope. This does not sound safe or even possible if it contained lithium aluminum hydride. However, if it was only nickel particles coated with a lithium-aluminum ally (with the hydrogen locked in), it may have been safe to transport in an envelope.

Currently, there are several replication projects – most in the early stages – going on around the world. Most of them will use a combination of nickel powder, lithium aluminum hydride, and perhaps iron to try and replicate. There is talk about the possibility of kits being offered for qualified, trained scientists to use in order to replicate.

It would be much safer if such kits contained only processed fuel in the form of lithium aluminum alloy covered nickel particles. This fuel would be much less dangerous – although it should still be handled with great care – and could potentially be exposed to atmosphere or humidity without the risk of explosion or fire. Fuel preparation could be done in one or more central locations, and distributed to experimenters.

For all the above reasons, the Rossi Effect seems to be a revolutionary energy technology that will rapidly surpass all others. Tomorrow, when Parkhomov releases more test data, we will learn even more. Maybe we will even learn more about catnip – what makes all E-Cat’s purr. If he has been able to produce self-sustaining heat after death, then his data could very well be almost indisputable.

Of course, even if his device operated without input for hours, third parties need to replicate. We need dozens of groups to replicate this basic effect to convince the world the Rossi Effect is real. But due to the simplicity and benefits of this technology, that should be pretty straightforward to obtain.

Hopefully, when that happens the patent office will grant his patents, Andrea Rossi will be recognized officially for this paradigm shattering discovery, and Industrial Heat proceed to put multiple products on the market, and an incredibly black swan, that no one expects, will be flying for all to see.

  • Hank Mills

    Axil,

    There are four main elements in the Lugano E-Cat: nickel, lithium, aluminum, and hydrogen. There may be small amounts of others, but these are the main ones. When I look at what may be producing the power in an E-Cat, I look at the most obvious reactions first. I am certain there are probably many different reactions taking place. However, we have billions of nickel particles with absorbed hydrogen covered in liquid lithium aluminum alloy. I don’t know much about aluminum in LENR, but I know Ikegami has proven lithium in the molten state is a million times more likely to experience a nuclear reaction than in the solid form.. This makes me think that at least at first proton lithium reactions are producing a significant portion of the heat.

  • Hank Mills

    Bob Greenyer,

    It does seem like Rossi used raw ingredients in the Lugano device.

    I was wrong.

    But the ability to transfer fuel from one device to another makes the idea of kits more realistic.

  • Bob Greenyer

    Well, that is about semantics, Fusion, hot and cold never traditionally defined itself other than the formation of Helium from interactions of isotopes of Hydrogen. ok, so technically it is a transmutation but never called itself that.

    This is transmutation and Nuclear synthesis, but no D+D going on, it is an exclusive set from that.

    In the end, people will call it what they want, regardless of accuracy and since we don’t really know precisely what it is, then the jury is out.

  • lars

    sorry I mean how can H be part of Ni whitout fusion to Cu?
    eigher it is chemical or nuclear or new state? how can there be new isotopes without changing of neutrons? if Ni goes in to a new isotope, is the neutron from Li?

  • Surveilz

    Thanks for this very well written piece. The only thing missing, which I hope LENR enthusiasts would include more of in their literature, is a pitch on how open science efforts can play a vital role in preventing future F&P fiascoes. You can bet the popes of scientific dogma and their well endowed financial backers are already planning ways to kill this embryo if it continues to gain traction. Open science is the cure.

  • Axil Axil

    I don’t mean to be negative but truth is a harsh taskmaster. Hank has made many statements that are misleading. Let’s try to set some of these ideas on the right track.
    The LENR reaction PROJECTS action at a distance. It is like a riffle, where the bullet is fired from point A and the bullet produces a reaction at point B. The LENR reaction is strong enough to be active when Point B includes ANY type of atom or combination of atoms. This means that the same atom can be transformed by the LENR reaction many times. The atom could start out as hydrogen, then beryllium, move on to lithium, then carbon, then silicon. The same atom can work its way transformed by many LENR reactions up the element chain until it stops at lead.
    This type of reaction is about as energy dense as you can imagine, maybe ten thousand times as energy dense as uranium fission or hydrogen hot fusion. The LENR reaction is limited only by E=MC^2. A gram of LENR fuel might be as energy dense as 10 pounds of U235.

    • Billy Jackson

      Axil. You lead off with a statement saying hank is misleading with his article but give no examples. Then you give conjecture based on your own interpretation that is itself unproven by the LENR system. these facts lead to disbelief or dismissal of your broad general statements on energy densities due to the lack specific math or speculative nature of your hypothesis.

      I think you will get a better response if you clarify your stance sir.

      • Axil Axil

        IF we take a look at the transmutation ash of many LENR systems, we see that fusion of light elements including hydrogen produce heavyer elements as high as lead. The Rossi and DGT reactors ash assays over the years show this. Fission is not possible because that reaction is not gainful. In the DGT rector, most of the transmutation resulted in lithium, boron, and beryllium ash but also some lead was detected.

        • Billy Jackson

          The transmutation of the fuel is what has many excited and has propelled the current surge in LENR these past few months, outside of the Lugano report, then followed up by MFMP and Parkhomov’s tests i don’t remember seeing anyone’s fuel ash reports?? (did i miss something???)

          This may be a bad assumption on my part but i caution anyone against hard judgements and declarations just yet that are not actual participants of these reports. There is no general consensus on theory just yet for whats happening. Till we have the working model of the inner mechanics everything is open to interpretation.

          Till then i am unwilling to contest what hank is saying nor what you are saying. I will say that i lean heavily in Hanks favor at the moment due to the specific nature of his supporting arguments backed up by the research and analysis he’s done in past endeavors.

          please by all means expand and present your case sir for your own analysis and i would be more than happy to be part of the conversation!

          • Axil Axil

            The true nature of the LENR reaction will not be determined until experimenters put the E Cat inside a neutrino detector to find out what subatomic reactions are involved in the reaction.

            • Billy Jackson

              hence the speculative nature of any hypothesis at this time. for now.. its all best guess..

              • Axil Axil

                Every theory can be tested by predictions. I predict strong magnetic and RF radiation coming from an operational reactor. If MFMP, wants to shut me up, they should make measurements of magnetic and RF radiation coming from their operating reactor.

  • lars

    thanks, very interesting. if there is no fusion but still more than a cemical reaction then it is a change of state of the hydrogen. makes me think the blacklight power is what is happends.
    does the nickel helps the hydrogen to change state to a hydrino? does the lithium helps the heat and pressure to be extreme?

    • Bob Greenyer

      If it was only a change in the state of Hydrogen, then there would be no isotopic shifts (unless you count H becoming part of another atom a change in its state!)

    • Axil Axil

      Its all about nanoparticles. The Brillouin LENR reactor can teach us some important lessons. The Brillouin LENR reactor uses nickel particles that are suspended in a flow of hydrogen. This speaks to the fact that the nanoparticles must be surrounded by hydrogen and able to occasionally come into contact with other nanoparticles. The Hot Cat produces nanoparticles. That is were all the hydrogen goes to. These nanoparticles must be free floating and mobile so that they can come together.

  • Sanjeev

    The most important task is to replicate the Parkhomov reactor in large numbers. Since you and Sterling Allan have a big database of builders who are interested in overunity research, I suggest emailing them with a request to replicate. It will be nice if broad instructions are sent as a PDF etc with pictures.

  • http://renewable.50webs.com/ Christopher Calder

    So what about the iron dust in Rossi’s fuel mix? The experimenters want to forget about it as if it did not exist, despite the fact that Rossi has been working on the fuel mixture for many years. Is the iron dust there just to help break H2 into H1, or is it also there to separate the nickel grains so they don’t bunch up and create hot spots that lead to instability and runaway reactions? I say use iron dust in your experiments. Rossi has it there for a reason, and it costs so little.

    • Bob Greenyer

      I have not worked through the reaction chains, but Iron is a transition metal so valid. It also has a longer path to Ni62 so will allow a longer burn time.

      Other than that the Iron could act as a catalyst lowering the breakdown temperature of LiAlH4.

      Or as a in-cell heater for RF induction heating

      More work needs to be done to establish its role.

      • builditnow

        Bob, The iron dust, along with an alternating magnetic pulse provided by the heater wires, could act as a mini stirrer. The benefit of a stirrer could be to spread the active material evenly throughout the reactor and help avoid hot spots.
        Hot spots could be a significant issue as the reaction become more exothermic as the temperature rises, so, hot spots have the potential to go out of control and locally overheat the reactor. This is why I included windings in the gas heated proposal http://imgur.com/gallery/AF6KGhe/new. Regarding this design, it could be significantly simpler than the diagram by applying gas heat ( and later, air cooling ) directly to the reactor rather than heating a circulating tube of very hot air.

        With sufficient insulation, when the reactor becomes exothermic, all heat could be stopped and the reactor temperature controlled by air cooling. The COP could then be very high, with only the magnetic stimulation as input power. Since the power required for magnetic stimulation is small, it could be provided by a battery and inverter. The battery could be charged by thermoelectric generators operated by the waste heat.

        Once running, everything could be disconnected except the monitoring equipment and the control system for air cooling (which perhaps could also run off the battery circuit as well).

    • Obvious

      Perhaps iron is only there to plug up the binding energy maximum limit.

    • Axil Axil

      At the very end of the Lagano report, there is a list of a dozen elements detected in the fuel by the fuel analysis that are not seen in the ash. Were did they go?

      • Obvious

        Glued to the reactor wall, quite possibly.

  • wpj

    I think that you may be overplaying the problems with LAH.

    Agreed, it is moisture unstable but the only time I have seen it go up was in a glove box (an undergrad that I was supervising). I have used hundreds of grams in my time, generally weighed out on a bench (quickly into a bottle).

    As for the toxicity, it doesn’t taste nice if you accidentally get some powder into the air…….

    Also, it does come in coated pellets; I’m sure of this were to take off then they would be able to produce much smaller pellets that could be used in the reactors.

    • Ted-X

      WPJ,
      You are correct. The dangers of LiAlH4 are exaggerated in these discussions. One way to keep it safe would be to keep the LiAlH4 as a suspension/slush in hexanes. After adding to the reactor: evaporate the hexanes in a stream of nitrogen or even hydrogen. Quite safe way of handling.
      I also used LiAlH4 in a fumehood as a powder, just doing the handling carefully, that was all.

  • Bob Greenyer

    Hi Hank,

    Thanks for a nice overview, however there is one inaccuracy that you can correct as there is no need for speculation since we know the real answer.

    The fuel in the Lugano reactor was not pre-run, it was raw materials, you can see from the SEM images that show the uncoated nickel filamentary particles. Please see these composite images I made.

    https://www.facebook.com/MartinFleischmannMemorialProject/posts/940004762696890

  • Observer

    Do we know what happened to the reaction chamber pressure when the reactor cooled down to room temperature?

  • William D. Fleming

    Could it be that pressure chambers are not needed except to process the fuel? Maybe lithium aluminum alloy could be melted in a pressure chamber, along with nickel powder and the mixture could be used to coat a finely spun tungsten mesh–something like steel wool which might then burn in the open air.

    There are so many avenues which need to be tried. This is all very exciting!

    • Hank Mills

      I’m not sure that Tungsten would produce high speed protons that would interact with the lithium. However, once the Parkhomov device has been replicated a dozen times, all sorts of elements should be tried.

      • William D. Fleming

        I was thinking of the tungsten as only a sort of heat resistant mesh to hold the nickel and hydrogen fuel in a thin layer with lots of surface area. The idea is that, being spread out, it would more easily ignite, and maybe be self sustaining. As an analogy, a piece of charcoal is hard to get burning, but guncotton is also carbon, and it lights readily.

    • GordonDocherty

      I believe pressure chambers are still needed. In fact, these revelations point interestingly – and very much – in the direction taken by Lattice Energy LLC – and lends a significant boost to the Widom-Larsen theory – see the slideshow :

      Ultrahigh local electric fields: surprising similarities between LENR active sites and enzymatic biocatalysis

      at

      http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen

      contents:

      Preface: Nuclear and chemical catalysis are deeply connected. 1-40
      Introduction: enzymes and other catalysts…………………………… 5-20
      Electroweak e + p reaction………………………………………………..21-24
      Widom-Larsen theory, LENRs, and electroweak catalysis………25-57
      LENRs on Carbon aromatic rings……………………………………….58-66
      LENR rates in condensed matter: theory and experiment………67-70
      Electric fields in enzymatic catalysis……………………………………71-80
      Quantum entanglement in enzymatic catalysis……………………..81-83
      Isotope effects in enzymatic and electroweak catalysis………….84
      Electric fields in metal-free catalysts…………………………………..85-86
      Bacterial LENRs?…………………………………………………………….87-97
      Wrap-up…………………………………………………………………………98-101

    • Axil Axil

      For example, there are a half dozen LENR systems that preprocess fuel to produce the active fuel configuration. That processed fuel contains nanoparticles. A fuel refining process is likely to evolve where nanoparticles of Rydburg matter is manufactured, then loaded later into the operational reactor.