Regarding Excitation of Electron–Hole Pairs in LENR (Axil Axil)

The following post was submitted by Axil Axil

Lets put some numbers on this concept to make it more understandable.

There is evidence that heat transfers its energy to photons in LENR. The wavelength of Far infrared EMF is about 1 millimeter. We know that the Rossi reactor produces a maximum EMF in the soft X-ray range or an EMF photon in the 10 nanometer range.

In the Ni/H reactor there is a process that increases the energy of the photon from 1 mm to 10 nm.

Since 1 millimeter = 1 000 000 nanometers, there is an energy amplification factor of 100,000.

There is a nano structure that produces this amplification of EMF power by 100,000. We know that when a photon is confined in a nano sized box, that photon will adjust its wavelength to resonate inside that box. The nano box that produces soft x-rays is sized to resonate in the circumference of 10 nanometers. So the nano box has a radius of about 3 nanometers.

The heat energy is converted to dipole vibration by the free electrons on the surface of the metal.

The spin of a dipole electron/photon hybrid or SPP is 2. But the nano box also amplifies this spin by a factor of 100,000 to conserve angular momentum. This is like an ice-skater who pulls in her arms to rotate in a smaller circumference. The tuck in of her arms increases her rotation rate.

For every SPP that goes into the nano-box, its spin is amplified to produce 200,000 Bohr magnetons. That is like having 800,000 magnetized iron atoms for every SPP that the heat photon produces.

When the nano box is filled to the maximum with SPPs, it will explode into a bosenova. At this point, the energy stored in the nano-box is returned to the system. This return happens when the electrons and x-ray photons decouple to produce independent electrons and x-rays. These soft x-rays are seen in many LENR systems such as cavitation, Mills catalysts as black light, and Ni/H reactors.

Because the SPP is a boson, coulomb repulsion does not limit the number of SPPs that can be packed into a nano-box. At this juncture, it is unknown how many SPPs can be packed into a nano-box before it explodes. But the number of SPPs could be very large. You can now see how a very powerful magnetic beam can be generated from heat energy.

The nano-box is a magnetic vortex or soliton because all the SPPs are coherent and form a Bose Einstein condensate. Like a tornado, the soliton focuses the magnetic field produced by the SPPs into a tight spot that shines on the matter near the soliton. This strong magnetic field does unusual things to the matter and space that falls within the influence of this magnetic beam. This concentration of heat energy into a focused magnetic field I believe underpins the nature of LENR.

Axil Axil

  • http://www.thinktankreport.com/ Phillip Power

    Hello Axil,

    This is clearly a very scholarly article which may well come to be regarded as a pivotal one and which also introduces many newly disovered, related phenomena. I’ll probably have many follow-up questions but here are the first ones:

    1) Edmund Storms invokes entropy violation as a refutation of many of the theories he considers in his latest book but wouldn’t this also be in play here if the nano structure were to produce amplification of EMF power by 100,000?

    2) I’m a bit confused about the magnetic field you invoke. Is this the result of internal processes or is it an externally imposed one? Parkhomov clearly doesn’t use an external one but Rossi perhaps does, by using the heater windings to add a high frequency ac signal to the dog bone core. And we know that Brillouin certainly does use an externally imposed electrical or magnetic field. Would it also be fair to say that such an externally imposed and therfore controllable magentic field provides not only a way to stimulate the reaction independently from heating but, crucially, to throttle back and even shut down the reaction (and, if so, would it not be a vastly superior method)?

    • Axil Axil

      Regarding:

      “1) Edmund Storms invokes entropy violation as a refutation of many of the theories he considers in his latest book but wouldn’t this also be in play here if the nano structure were to produce amplification of EMF power by 100,000?”

      Ed Storms could never understand the concept of the quasi-particle. He states in the beginning of one of his books that EMF amplication cannot occur because the electron repels one another and therefore EMF cannot not be concentrated.

      But light and electrons can come together so that they form a boson. Now a quasi-particle with a combined waveform of light and electron can be concentrated in large numbers in a very small space. The polariton condensate in dark mode has a unique nature. It acts just like a black hole and can be used to research the behavior of black holes, worm holes and the like.

      http://journals.aps.org/prb/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevB.84.233405

      But the polariton still has a spin of 2. That spin naturally produces a anapole magnetic beam when the polariton condensate comes together to form a soliton. This too is analoguse to a qusar that projects a magnetic beam.

      http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRvbrpXxbzVHz2eZldqiNcpJQSEA4js7afQtF8yLaiIaQgtHryA

      The catalyst that forms these solitons are nanoparticles when they aggregate together. The volume of their point of contact produces the polariton vortexes. Ironically, the smaller the nanoparticle is, the more powerful will be the vortex that it produces.

      My favorite example of how nanoparticles are the ultimate catalyst for LENR are these lasor experiments:

      They show how the confinement of polaritons on the surface of gold nanoparticles: a nanoplasmonic mechanism can change the half-life of U232 from 69 years to 6 microseconds. It also causes thorium to fission.

      See references:
      http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&sqi=2&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Farxiv.org%2Fpdf%2F1112.6276&ei=nI6UUeG1Fq-N0QGypIAg&usg=AFQjCNFB59F1wkDv-NzeYg5TpnyZV1kpKQ&sig2=fhdWJ_enNKlLA4HboFBTUA&bvm=bv.46471029,d.dmQ

      Experiments showing the same mechanism as listed below:

      “Laser-induced synthesis and decay of Tritium under exposure of solid targets in heavy water”

      http://arxiv.org/abs/1306.0830

      Initiation of nuclear reactions under laser irradiation of Au nanoparticles in the presence of Thorium aqua ions

      http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0906/0906.4268.pdf

    • Axil Axil

      Magnetic fields are produced naturally when electrons hit boundaries or defects on surfaces. Rossi may use RF as a control mechanism to dampen the reaction.
      There is good reason to believe that magnetism is the prime
      mover in LENR. Under this speculative paradigm, it is interesting to consider
      the options and consequences of this conjecture. In such a paradigm, any
      technology that is friendly to magnetism would be good for LENR, and
      conversely, a technology that undercuts the strength of magnetism is bad.

      The Pd/D wet technology is more unfriendly to magnetism than
      nickel because it makes magnetism more difficult to maintain. Firstly as a
      general technological principle, an isotope must have a nuclear spin of zero to
      enable the LENR reaction. There is much experimental evidence to support this conjecture. For an explanation see below.

      In this respect, palladium has a nuclear spin profile that is about 78%
      effective. 105Pd has a non-zero spin and is 22% of the isotopic contents of run
      of the mill palladium.

      On the other hand, Nickel is much more efficient in terms of
      supporting magnetism. 61Ni has a non-zero nuclear spin, but that isotope is
      only 1.14% of the isotopic content of Nickel.
      Palladium is paramagnetic and Nickel is ferromagnetic. So nickel
      is more desirable than palladium as a magnetic reaction catalyst.

      In more detail, this thinking is underpinned by a speculative
      ENR reaction rule that is interesting to explore. That rule is that the LENR
      reaction must occur among atomic ions that have zero nuclear spin.

      In explanation, Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical
      phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit
      electromagnetic radiation. This energy is at a specific resonance frequency
      which depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the magnetic properties of the isotope of the atoms; in practical applications, the frequency is similar to old style VHF and UHF television broadcasts (60–1000 MHz). NMR allows the observation of specific quantum mechanical magnetic properties of the atomic nucleus.

      All isotopes that contain an odd number of protons and/or of
      neutrons have an intrinsic magnetic moment and angular momentum, in other words a nonzero spin, while all nuclides with even numbers of both have a total spin of zero. The most commonly studied NMR active nuclei are 1H and 13C, although nuclei from isotopes of many other elements (e.g. 2H, 6Li, 10B, 11B, 14N, 15N, 17O, 19F, 23Na, 29Si, 31P, 35Cl, 113Cd, 129Xe, 195Pt) have been studied by high-field NMR spectroscopy as well.

      It is now known that Ni61 does not participate in the LENR for the DGT
      reaction. Ni61 is a NMR active isotope. When a magnetic field is applied to an
      NMR active isotope, the magnetic energy imparted to the nucleus is dissipated
      by induced nuclear vibrational energy which is radiated away as rf energy. The
      non-zero spin of the the nucleus shields the nucleus from the external magnetic field not allowing that field to penetrate into it. External magnetic fields catalyze changes in the protons and neutrons in the nucleus as well as enabling accelerated quantum mechanical tunneling. If this external magnetic field is shielded by NMR activity, LENR transmutation of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus is made more difficult.

      Rossi increases Ni62 and Ni64 in his nickel because these isotopes have zero nuclear spin and will emit less positrons when converted to copper because of thier high neutron content.

      Therefore, during the course of an extended LENR reaction cycle,
      isotope depletion will tend to favor the enrichment and buildup of NMR active
      elements.

      Both deuterium and nitrogen are known LENR poisons because of their non zero nuclear spins.
      Hydrogen with non-zero spin will not participate in the LENR
      reaction whereas cooper pairs of protons will. Expect LENR reactions centered
      on pairs of protons with zero spin.

      Also, as the LENR reaction matures and more NMR active isotopes
      accumulate, the LENR reactor will put out increasing levels or rf radiation
      derived from the nuclear vibrations of the NMR isotope.

      This NMR thinking also applies to the nature of the various
      isotopes of hydrogen.

      Molecular hydrogen occurs in two isomeric forms, one with its
      two proton spins aligned parallel (orthohydrogen), the other with its two
      proton spins aligned antiparallel (parahydrogen). At room temperature and
      thermal equilibrium, hydrogen consists of approximately 75% orthohydrogen and 25% parahydrogen.

      Orthohydrogen hydrogen has non zero spin, this is bad for Ni/HLENR because the non zero spin wastes magnetic energy by producing RF
      radiation. Parahydrogen hydrogen has zero spin. This is good for Ni/H LENR
      because this type of hydrogen is magnetically inactive.

      This is a way to increase parahydrogen hydrogen by using a noble
      metal catalyst.

      see

      Catalytic process for ortho-para hydrogen conversion

      http://www.google.copatents/US3383176

      Could this metallic ruthenium and certain ruthenium alloys be
      Rossi’s secret sauce?

      The first step in the hydrogen doublet fusion process is the
      formation of one or more atoms of 2He.

      Helium-2 or 2He, also known as a diproton, is an extremely
      unstable isotope of helium that consists of two protons without any neutrons.
      According to theoretical calculations it would have been much more stable
      (although still beta decaying to deuterium) had the strong force been 2%
      greater. Its instability is due to spin-spin interactions in the nuclear force,
      and the Pauli exclusion principle, which forces the two protons to have
      anti-aligned spins and gives the diproton a negative binding energy.

      By the way, the ash produced by the LENR reaction will have a
      non-zero nuclear spin such as lithium, boron, and beryllium. This is due to the
      fact that the ash is at the end of the LENR reaction chain that terminates with
      an isotope featuring a non-zero nuclear spin.

      Furthermore, all the stable isotopes of copper have a non-zero
      nuclear spin. This may be way these isotopes are found in the ash assay of
      Rossi’s reactor.

      One last correlation remains.
      It seems that the popular wet LENR catalyst acts like a
      superconductor for protons where protons pair up into a cooper pair.

      See

      http://arxiv.org/pdf/0807.1386

      This work emphasizes that atoms in the crystal-field of KHCO3
      are not individual particles possessing properties in their own right. They merge into macroscopic states and exhibit all features of quantum mechanics: non-locality, entanglement, spin-symmetry, superposition and interference. There is every reason to suppose that similar quantum effects should occur in many hydrogen bonded crystals undergoing structural phase transitions.

      I understand spin-symmetry to mean a zero spin.
      This catalyst provides a proton dimer of zero spin to the wet
      LENR reaction. This is the reason why this catalyst enhances electrolytic LENR in water.

      • http://www.thinktankreport.com/ Phillip Power

        I’m still working through this and your first answer but, regarding the role of Nickel’s ferromagnetism, I am reminded that Alnico has an even greater ferromagnetism than just Nickel by itself. Alnico consists of Aluminium, Nickel and Cobalt (Al-Ni-Co) as well as Iron. Three of these four are already known to be in the “secret sauce”, so I wonder whether Cobalt might also be there. That would set the stage for Alnico forming by simple fusing as the temperature rises and enhancing the reaction.

        • Axil Axil

          The thing that makes nickel special is its unmatched ability to reflect infrared light. This ability is important in order to maximize the production of polaritons. This ability minimized dispersion of infrared radiation. Zirconium and titanium are close by nickel is the best at infrared refection.

          • http://www.thinktankreport.com/ Phillip Power

            – So, if the infrared light, is all reflected in the same direction and not dispersed into a sector of directions, this will help build up the “resonance”? Good point.

            But to return to the role of Cobalt: It seems to enhance ferromagnetism whether it appears in the likes of Alnico or the newer, rare earth magents. In addtion to boosting the internal B fields, the significant hysteresis can be used, with alternating H fields, to provide “remote” heating.

            So we seem to be arriving at the idea of particular elements playing two or more distinct but synergistic roles in the LENR process.

            – or have I crossed the BS threshold? 🙂

            • Axil Axil

              http://www.infinite-energy.com/images/pdfs/NIWeekCravens.pdf

              Dennis Cravens and Rod Gimpel only use high temperture magnet powder in their reactor. But the output power is very low at about 1 watt even though there is no input power used. The magnet power does it all.

              “So a large sample and a magnetic field is good. To assure a strong
              magnetic field in the active material the spheres contain a
              ground samarium cobalt (Sm2Co7) magnet, which stays
              magnetized at higher temperatures. This was powdered and
              the powder is mostly random but it should provide a strong
              magnetic field within the sample.”

  • artefact

    Axil Axil, how would you integrate the hydrogen anion into your described process? How would it be different to h or h+?

    • Axil Axil

      In my view of LENR for the Ni/H reactor, the reaction is a two step process. First, a strong magnetic field is generated that is directed at one or more nuclei. This is a result of electron motion without any hydrogen anion causation.

      Second, the magnetic field disrupts the nuclei that it falls upon. This can include hydrogen anions, hydrides, or any chemical configuration of atoms that may exist in the path of the beam. When the magnetic field removes the coulomb barrier of any nuclei and/or electron, anything can happen. Most of the LENR reaction happens in the nanoparticles of hydrogen and other Rydberg crystals leading to the creation of light elements through fusion. If the nanoparticle clusters are in range of the nickel, fusion of hydrogen with nickel is possible. To complicate things even more, the magnetic field can also change neutron to protons and vice versa in a process called magnetic catalysis by aligning quarks in a one dimensional string along its field lines.

      The magnetic beam also becomes a conduit for nuclear binding energy that feeds this EMF based binding energy that would ordinarily come out as a gamma ray into the soliton in a positive feedback mechanism. Most often, this beam also greatly increases the stabilization of radioactive isotopes caused by transmutation.

      • Andreas Moraitis

        Is that magnetically catalyzed nucleon transformation the same as beta decay, and is there experimental evidence for it?

        • Axil Axil

          The experiments are done in heavy ion collisions because of the high magnetic field strengths required. A quark gluon plasma can produce these strong magnetic fields. Otherwise in the lab, the production of strong magnetic fields are not possible. However, Dr Kim saw these very strong fields and the Bosnova in the DGT reactor.

          • Andreas Moraitis

            Kim and Hadjichristos measured up to 1.6 Tesla in 20 cm distance from their reactor, which means that (if this number is correct) the field strength inside the device must have been enormous. I doubt that it could have reached the order of magnitude that is mentioned in the document you pointed to, but in any case the field might have been be able to initiate some atypical process.

            • Axil Axil

              There is another factor that adds to the power calculation. If all the billions of solitons are coherent, their power is additive. The entire soliton ensemble would form a single super soliton.

              This is why I am interested in magnetic measurements near the core of the dog bone.

            • Axil Axil

              What is difficult to answer is how the very weak LENR systems like the Golden balls and the NANOR can produce nuclear energy when the input power they use is almost non existent.

  • Gerard McEk

    I like the way you try to explain the SPP to the crowd, Axil. What is not clear to me, is what happens to the Hydrogen proton. Is that also part of the SPP?

    • Axil Axil

      The proton or hydrogen ion is part of the 100 or so atoms of a hydrogen nanoparticle (Rydberg matter), The electron is oscillating on the surface of the nanoparticle. The hydrogen can also be incorporated on the positively charged side of a hydride crystal when the proton is captured in a lithium or aluminum electron cloud.

      • Mats002

        I like to read your creative thinking even though I struggle with both vocabulary and concepts I might be expected to know (like what is an SPP). With my limited abilities I wonder; where is the transmutations in this process?

        • Axil Axil

          A Surface Plasmon Poloriton (SPP) is a dipole that is excited by heat. Heat causes an electron on the surface of a metal to move away from its nucleus, but the nucleus always pulls it back towards it again. This sets up an oscillation like a metronome. Elections that vibrate produces and alternating current and when an electron is forced to oscillate in a circular path, they produce a magnetic field.

          The way to get electrons to oscillate in a circle is to run that electron into a barrier, like an edge of a nanoparticle or have it hit a nano-pit or a nanobump on the surface of metal. LENR always happens on a rough surface, and the reason for that is the requirement to generated vortexes using nanostructures on that surface.

          • Mats002

            Thanks Axil, this answer together with your answer to artefact above gave me the feeling of a complete process, what about how to start the process? Why are special startup procedures needed for Parkhomov/MFMP and how to control this process when started? Just thinking out loud.

  • Andreas Moraitis

    Those who have in mind the Latin origin of the term „supernova“ (a seemingly new star was called „stella nova“, or simply “nova”) might not be happy with the “bosenova” neologism. Apart form this, an interesting post.