SPP Condensation (Axil Axil)

The following post was submitted by Axil Axil

Polaritons are composite half-light half-matter quasiparticles that arise from a strong coupling between infrared photons and electric dipoles (excitons), which are the electron and the associated hole of a dipole.

Electrons on the surface of metal are free to move. They are set into motion by the electric field of the infrared light that shines on the surface of a metal particle. This light energy “pumps” energy into the electrons.

The energetic particle is polarized and there is a positively charged side and a negatively charged side. The electrons are attracted to the positive side, this produces a restoring force. The electron oscillates between the positive and negative sides of the particle. The magnitude of these oscillations are quantized and are called “surface plasmons”.

A perfect infrared light reflector like nickel will keep infrared light confined very close to its surface. The surface plasmon will couple with the light confined on the surface of the metal when the energies of the SP and the photon are equal and the photon will change the dipole oscillation waveform so the magnetic field of the hybrid wave is perpendicular to the vector of the wave.

A SPP can keep together for a long time before it falls apart. When it holds together, it is called a dark polariton. When it gives up its light energy, it is called a bright polariton.

The tubercles on the nickel powder act as phase masks to produce a vortex of polaritons. Under the influence of the tubercles, the SPPs spin in a circle and give and take energy so that all the SPPs that live inside this vortex are the same waveform. One soliton can influence another over the entire system through the tranfer of EMF so that eventually all the SPPs are the same waveform and all the dipoles are ocillating in unison.

In general in the presence of SPPs, any irregular feature on the surface or edge or crack in a metal will produce SPP solitons.
This vortex is itself a quasiparticle where all the polaritons that enter the vortex settle to the same energy through wispering gallary wave interference (Fano interference).

This dark mode soliton is a dense ball of EMF that gets very strong as heat and/or nuclear energy is pumped into the SPP system; think ball lightning but completely dark.

As quasiparticles, it is these dark mode solitons that will form the Bose Einstein Condinsate (BEC) through the transfer of infrared photons and bright SPPs between all the solitons on the tubicle face of all the nickel powder.

Interestingly,  bright mode SPPs will transfer their light based energy from the infrared photon to the SP when the SPP breaks up.   In this way being paced by the energy of the dipole, the frequency of light in a system will shorten bing produced by the increased energy of the SPP up to extreme ultrviolet and soft x-rays as nuclear energy flows into the system.

I think of this BEC as all the polaritons in a given system oscillating back and forth in unison on the surface of the nickel micro particles and when they reach the edge of the particle, they jump off and spin in unison around inside the vortex before they travel back to the positively charge edge of the particle.

Unless this SPP based BEC formation process is established in the nickel micro particles, when the nanoparticles first appear later on in the evolution of a system when the supercritical gas based nanoparticle formation process sets in, these nanoparticle based SPPs will act locally and produce hot spots. But if a SPP BEC is in place, the new nano SPPs will transfer their excess energy throughout the system under the influence of the SPP BEC. In this energy sharing between SPP solitons, the flow of nuclear energy is well distributed throughout the LENR system.

Finally, the SPP dark mode soliton is a magnetic monipole. The special magnetic field that this soliton produces will affect nuclear activity of nearby matter to enable transfer of that excess binding energy through the soliton and be distributed throughout the LENR system.

We might think of an SPP soliton as a sort of lighthouse that shoots out a powerful magnetic beam that pulses in time as the SPPs oscillates back and forth over the particle and orbits briefly around its negatively charged tubercle covered edge at terahertz frequencies.

Axil Axil

  • Axil Axil

    Mentioned in the Excitation section in


    “A grating coupler matches the wave vectors by increasing the parallel wave vector component by an amount related to the grating period (Figure 2). This method, while less frequently utilized, is critical to the theoretical understanding of the effect of surface roughness. Moreover, simple isolated surface defects such as a groove, a slit or a corrugation on an otherwise planar surface provides a mechanism by which free-space radiation and SPs can exchange energy and hence couple”

    An as of yet unrecognized function of the tubercles on the surface or the nickel micro-particles is the mechanism to couple light photons with Surface plasmons thereby injecting heat energy into that system.

    • Andreas Moraitis

      Yes, it might work in this way. If so, it should be possible to get far better results with a made-to-measure geometry and an optimized stimulation method. The powder / heating coil systems would look like stone-age technology in comparison to a microchip.

    • Eyedoc

      so SPP is Surface Plasmon + Photon ??

      • Axil Axil

        In technical writing, the first time that an abbreviation is used, it must be defined in full. To my chagrin, I did not do this in my post here.

        The first reference should have looked like this as follows: Surface Plasmon Polariton (SPP)

        In physics, polaritons /pɵˈlærɪtɒnz/ are quasiparticles resulting from strong coupling of electromagnetic waves with an electric or magnetic dipole-carrying excitation.

        The photon of light gives its energy to the dipole until the energy of the photon and the energy of the dipole are equal, for a time, the two waves combine together and produce a new waveform.

        This is a quantum mechanical process called Avoided Crossing.
        The process of polariton formation looks like this.


        • Eyedoc

          yes OK, Thanks for this !…..just trying to keep up as best I can 🙂

  • Alan DeAngelis

    Since I’m a chemist, I’ve had some thoughts (some delirious thoughts) about the IR stretching of the metal hydride bonds. I was wonder if the oscillations of the IR stretching might bring the nuclei close enough
    together for them to tunnel and fuse.
    See my off topic (as usual) comments.

    • Axil Axil

      The “many miracles of cold fusion” is a common trail of the LENR reaction. This feature of the reaction unites all the various forms of LENR under a single basic cause. LENR still occurs when the metal hydride bonds are not stretched. There is a unrecognized mystery about how the universe has not been discovered

      • Alan DeAngelis

        If there is heat there is infrared stretching.

        • Axil Axil

          In the Proton 21 experiment, there are no “metal hydride bonds” to stretch. The material involved is very pure copper.

          • Alan DeAngelis

            Pardon me; I thought this was about transition metal hydride systems.

            • Axil Axil

              LENR is about any element or compound that can produce nanoparticles.

  • Axil Axil

    What is most interesting is how the spins of the SPPs that enter the soliton region are greatly amplified based on the size of the soliton. The evidence for this behavior is that the soliton will eventually explode in a Bosenova (as described by DGT) when their energy storage capacity is reached. This quantum mechanical(QM) explosion is based on the failure of the repulsion of the electrons that orbit the vortex. Somehow, the repulsion is replaced by an attraction and the electrons act like they are inside an collapsing star. The soliton collapses when the size of the soliton reaches a critical limit. At that limit, the soliton collapse under its own QM weight and explodes.

    This QM behavior has been verified in QM experiments using ultra cold atoms in a photonic lattice in a BEC.

  • Andreas Moraitis

    Two problems (I already mentioned No. 1 some time ago):

    1 – The vectors of the incoming IR and the surface waves must match in order to excite the SPP’s:

    “If a free-space photon comes from air towards a smooth metal surface, it cannot excite an SPP at the metal-air interface. The reason is that if the photon and SPP have the same frequency, then they necessarily have different in-plane wavevectors.“

    ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surface_plasmon_polariton )

    2 – Electrolysis-based systems would require a different explanation, since there is no incoming IR, and no EUV/X-rays or magnetic phenomena have been observed (at least so far).

    • Axil Axil
    • Axil Axil

      To explain #2

      IMHO, many of the positive LENR results seen in Electrolysis-based systems are caused by cavitation. Many micro-graphs of the cathodes from those types of experiments show volcano like eruptions that most say are caused by reactions originating inside the bulk of the metal which erupt outward. This is not the case. These eruptions are caused by cavitation bubbles working from the surface penetrating into the bulk.

      Other Electrolysis-based system results are cause by cracking of the palladium metal that result from high hydrogen loading of palladium. SPP are then produced over time in a hot Electrolysis-based systems. In these sorts of experiments, a time delay before the reaction begins is observed. This is caused by the time it takes the cracking to develop on the surface of the cathode.