Tinkering with the weak and strong force in LENR (Axil Axil)

The following post was submitted by Axil Axil

Tinkering with the weak and strong force in LENR.

One of the most consequential mechanisms of quantum mechanics is the entanglement of the quantum properties among particles. This mysterious effect allows two or more particles to behave as one, no matter how far apart they are.

This phenomenon could be responsible for many significant aspects of our lives such as the forward flow of time, thermodynamics and how everyday objects acquire mass, yourself included, and could finally explain why the fundamental particles of matter have the mass they do. –

Oftentimes, the interaction between two  electrons causes their individual properties, such as spin, to become “entangled”. If you then change the spin of one particle it will instantly affect the spin of the other, regardless of the distance between them.

More than 50 years ago, the first hint of Higgs was inspired by the study of superconductors – a special class of metals that, when cooled to very low temperatures, allow electrons to move without resistance.

About a decade ago,  a theory of entanglement of electrons was offered to explain one of the defining traits of superconductivity: the Meissner effect. This quintessential property of superconductivity will levitate a magnet above a piece of superconducting material. The magnetic field emanating from the magnet induces a current in the surface of the superconductor, and this current effectively excludes the magnetic field from the interior of the superconducting material, causing the magnet to hover in the air.

The key concept that has been explored here is “exclusion of the force carrier”. When entanglement excludes the force carrier, then the nature of the interaction of the particle with the force carrier that participle  is associated with is changed.

Physicists believe that the source of this mass is something called the Higgs field that fills the universe and is mediated by a particle known as the Higgs boson. These bosons are thought to exist in a “condensed” state that excludes the mediator particles such as gluons in the same way that a superconductor’s entangled electrons exclude the photons of a magnetic field.

A Bose Condensate is always associated with a type of boson or in other words “a force Carrier”.  The Higgs field is comprised of Higgs bosons that are entangled and condensed. That Higgs field excludes photons in varying degrees based on the myriad types of particles that is producing those force carriers. This Higgs field interacts with the force carriers of the strong force and the weak force as well as the electromagnetic force. This degree of exclusion defines the mass of the particle.

This exclusion by the Higgs field is what gives the mediator particles an effective mass, and also limits their range of influence. But no one understands how the Higgs field excludes, say, gluons.

Entanglement could be the answer. Entanglement could be how the condensation of the Higgs bosons and exclusion of the mediators requires entanglement between the Higgs bosons. Entanglement may be linked to the mass of not just the mediator particles, but all fundamental particles. Different particles would interact differently with the entangled Higgs bosons, providing different “effective masses” for each particle.

The entanglement of the polariton, a hybrid of light and matter, in the form of a soliton and its projection of entanglement might be another analogous mechanism that excludes the force carriers of both the weak and strong force.
This mechanism of entangled exclusion of force carriers could be the chief mover of how low energy nano reactions work.
Reference
http://arxiv.org/pdf/1412.0068v1.pdf
The Higgs Mode in Disordered Superconductors
Close to a Quantum Phase Transition
Through the use of 2 dimensional topological superconductors, the Higgs field is detected using a Quantum Phase transition in a condensed matter system.
The study of the properties of disordered superconductors is a subject of ongoing intense activity, mostly because it is viewed as being one of the few physical systems that can be tuned through a two dimensional quantum critical point, which is not mean-field-like. The softening of the Higgs mode is a direct proof that the superconductor-insulator transition (SIT) is a quantum critical point in which a diverging timescale is detected. Evidently, the vicinity to the Quantum Phase Transition (QPT) offers a unique opportunity to study the nature of the low energy collective excitations in superconductors. Going beyond disordered superconductors, this finding can play a role in tracing collective excitations in other quantum critical condensed matter systems and might influence and inform related fields such as Bose-condensed ultra cold atoms, quantum statistical mechanics and high energy physics.

Cross posted on Ego Out

  • GreenWin

    Agreed bachole. I should correct my statement above. Sheldrake’s theory is titled “morphic resonance” or the morphogenetic field. It is no less plausible than the “Higgs field,” except that it provides foundation for consciousness, intuition and intent.

  • Axil Axil

    Why is it so hard for today’s science to understand how the collective action of electrons can affect the nature of the weak and strong forces inside the nucleus.

    The mechanism of superconductivity gives us a clue. Both Its theory and it behavior inspired Higgs among others to solve the mass problem in particle physics. But amazingly, we have been shown in a recent superconductor experiment that we do not need a large particle accelerator to see the Higgs field at work though a Quantum Phase Transition. A condensed matter superconducting system configured with the appropriate crystal structure will reveal the Higgs field in action. Superconductivity shows that mass is just the shielding of force carriers.

    If a crystal structure can produce mass, why cannot a crystal structure and its attendant electron dance produce nuclear rearrangement so that one or more nuclei can achieve a lower energy level by converting mass to energy? Neutrons are not required when the forces of nature are being directly manipulated inside every level of the nuclear hierarchy by the proper electron dance. After all since mass and energy are the same thing, both the production of mass and energy are caused by the exclusion of the various force carriers from their attendant subatomic nuclear resident particles.

    • Mats002

      I agree about the concept of shielding forces because I have never been able to wrap my head around the idea that a force of any kind can make particles attract. All forces must be direct by pushing or indirect by shielding other pushing forces. No matter what names you give the force. Bosons is just a name on fources and a fource is a stream of particles so many that you can not see them as individuals but by statistics and probability.
      An ether make sence, whatever name you give to it.

    • Eyedoc

      So what does that say about the creation or maintenance of a LENR reaction ? does this give us any insight into what is going on or how we enhance LENR?

      • Axil Axil

        Because of the possibility that coherent solitons of polaritons are producing a anapole magnetic field based reaction, there is good reason to believe that magnetism is the prime mover in LENR.

        Under this speculative paradigm, it is interesting to consider
        the options and consequences of this conjecture. In such a paradigm, any
        technology that is friendly to magnetism would be good for LENR, and
        conversely, a technology that undercuts the strength of magnetism is bad.

        The Pd/D wet technology is more unfriendly to magnetism than
        nickel because it makes magnetism more difficult to maintain. Firstly as a
        general technological principle when dealing with a relatively weak reaction level, an isotope must have a nuclear spin of zero to
        enable the LENR reaction. There is much experimental evidence to support this conjecture. For an explanation see below.

        In this respect, palladium has a nuclear spin profile that is about 78%
        effective. 105Pd has a non-zero spin and is 22% of the isotopic contents of run
        of the mill palladium.

        On the other hand, Nickel is much more efficient in terms of
        supporting magnetism. 61Ni has a non-zero nuclear spin, but that isotope is
        only 1.14% of the isotopic content of Nickel.

        Palladium is paramagnetic and Nickel is ferromagnetic. So nickel
        is more desirable than palladium as a magnetic reaction catalyst.

        In more detail, this thinking is underpinned by a speculative
        LENR reaction rule that is interesting to explore. That rule is that the LENR
        reaction must occur among atomic ions that have zero nuclear spin.
        In explanation, Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical
        phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit
        electromagnetic radiation. This energy is at a specific resonance frequency
        which depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the magnetic properties of the isotope of the atoms; in practical applications, the frequency is similar to old style VHF and UHF television broadcasts (60–1000 MHz). NMR allows the observation of specific quantum mechanical magnetic properties of the atomic nucleus.

        All isotopes that contain an odd number of protons and/or of
        neutrons have an intrinsic magnetic moment and angular momentum, in other words a nonzero spin, while all nuclides with even numbers of both have a total spin of zero. The most commonly studied NMR active nuclei are 1H and 13C, although nuclei from isotopes of many other elements (e.g. 2H, 6Li, 10B, 11B, 14N, 15N, 17O, 19F, 23Na, 29Si, 31P, 35Cl, 113Cd, 129Xe, 195Pt) have been studied by high-field NMR spectroscopy as well.

        It is now known that Ni61 does not participate in a weak LENR
        reaction. Ni61 is a NMR active isotope. When a magnetic field is applied to an
        NMR active isotope, the magnetic energy imparted to the nucleus is dissipated
        by induced nuclear vibrational energy which is radiated away as rf energy. The
        non-zero spin of the the nucleus shields the nucleus from the external magnetic field not allowing that field to penetrate into it. External magnetic fields catalyze changes in the protons and neutrons in the nucleus as well as enabling accelerated quantum mechanical tunneling. If this external magnetic field is shielded by NMR activity, LENR transmutation of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus is made more difficult.

        Rossi increases Ni62 and Ni64 in his nickel because these isotopes have zero nuclear spin and will emit less positrons when converted to copper because of thier high neutron content.

        Therefore, during the course of an extended LENR reaction cycle,
        isotope depletion will tend to favor the enrichment and buildup of NMR active
        elements.

        Both deuterium and nitrogen are known LENR poisons because of their non zero nuclear spins.

        Hydrogen with non-zero spin will not participate in the LENR
        reaction whereas cooper pairs of protons will. Expect LENR reactions centered
        on pairs of protons with zero spin.

        Also, as the LENR reaction matures and more NMR active isotopes
        accumulate, the LENR reactor will put out increasing levels or RF radiation
        derived from the nuclear vibrations of the NMR isotope.

        This NMR thinking also applies to the nature of the various
        isotopes of hydrogen.

        Molecular hydrogen occurs in two isomeric forms, one with its
        two proton spins aligned parallel (orthohydrogen), the other with its two
        proton spins aligned antiparallel (parahydrogen). At room temperature and
        thermal equilibrium, hydrogen consists of approximately 75% orthohydrogen and 25% parahydrogen.

        Orthohydrogen hydrogen has non zero spin, this is bad for Ni/H
        LENR because the non zero spin wastes magnetic energy by producing RF
        radiation. Parahydrogen hydrogen has zero spin. This is good for Ni/H LENR
        because this type of hydrogen is magnetically inactive.

        This is a way to increase parahydrogen hydrogen by using a noble
        metal catalyst.

        see

        Catalytic process for ortho-para hydrogen conversion

        http://www.google.copatents/US3383176

        Could this metallic ruthenium and certain ruthenium alloys be
        among Rossi’s collection of secret sauce?

        The first step in the hydrogen doublet fusion process is the
        formation of one or more atoms of 2He.

        Helium-2 or 2He, also known as a diproton, is an extremely
        unstable isotope of helium that consists of two protons without any neutrons.
        According to theoretical calculations it would have been much more stable
        (although still beta decaying to deuterium) had the strong force been 2%
        greater. Its instability is due to spin-spin interactions in the nuclear force,
        and the Pauli exclusion principle, which forces the two protons to have
        anti-aligned spins and gives the diproton a negative binding energy.

        By the way, the ash produced by the weak LENR reaction will have a
        non-zero nuclear spin such as lithium, boron, and beryllium. This is due to the
        fact that the ash is at the end of the LENR reaction chain that terminates with
        an isotope featuring a non-zero nuclear spin.

        Furthermore, all the stable isotopes of copper have a non-zero
        nuclear spin. This may be way these isotopes are found in the ash assay of
        Rossi’s reactor.

        One last correlation remains.
        It seems that the popular old time wet LENR catalyst acts like a
        superconductor for protons where protons pair up into a cooper pair.

        See

        http://arxiv.org/pdf/0807.1386

        This work emphasizes that atoms in the crystal-field of KHCO3
        are not individual particles possessing properties in their own right. They merge into macroscopic states and exhibit all features of quantum mechanics: non-locality, entanglement, spin-symmetry, superposition and interference. There is every reason to suppose that similar quantum effects should occur in many hydrogen bonded crystals undergoing structural phase transitions.

        I understand spin-symmetry to mean a zero spin.

        This catalyst provides a proton dimer of zero spin to the wet
        LENR reaction. This is the reason why this catalyst enhances electrolytic LENR in water.

        • Andreas Moraitis

          Ni loses its ferromagnetic properties at about 360C. Since palladium works at room temperature and nickel must be heated up, one might guess that ferromagnetism is rather a disruptive factor than an advantage.

          I agree that spin effects, of whatever kind, could be a key element, but there are different aspects to consider. First, as you say, energy exchange via NMR may be possible – this should be relatively easy to determine by appropriate measurements. Secondly, isotopes with zero nuclear spin would facilitate nuclear reactions in case that there is an asymmetric Coulomb barrier (according to S. Sarg and others). Third, spin determines if particles have a bosonic or fermionic character. Here it depends on the question if we look at nuclei or atoms: Protons are fermions and deuterons are bosons, but H atoms are bosons and D atoms are fermions. Maybe there is a fundamental difference between light hydrogen- and deuterium-based systems with regard to this?

          Proton Cooper pairs are certainly a hot candidate, since they might enable superconductivity at room temperature. The distinction between ortho- and parahydrogen would only make sense if molecular hydrogen participates in the process. But that’s impossible in the lattice, and not very likely at the metal surface.

          • Axil Axil

            Regarding: nickel over the curie temperature point.
            The design goal is the formation of magnetic polariton vortexes.
            The breakdown of global magnetic behavior into nanoscopic vortex currents may not be that important when it comes to the magnetic properties of nickel micro particles, but in Piantelli’s nickel bar lattice, this microscopic property that permutes the formation of magnetic vortexes may be important. In the micro powder, the tubules mainly promote magnetic vortex formation through the phase mask mechanism.

            • GreenWin

              Interesting discussion gentlemen. I would love to read your thoughts on Mills’ notion that the electron is a non-point particle. His theory views the electron as an “orbitsphere” wave function inside of which the nucleus exists. His atom is not restricted by a quantum ground state thus allowing formation of hydrino in the case of atomic hydrogen. His theory adopts Maxwell’s equations at the quantum level – which would appear to accept some of your discussion of (para and ferro-) magnetic periods affecting LENR.

              It further appears that Brian Ahern agrees with some of your conclusions. A rather simple near-term test would be for Bob Greenyer to suggest Parkhomov put a strong permanent magnet next to his Rossi reactor and see if the output changes.

              • Axil Axil

                I have always thought that R. Mills has succumbed to a simplified imaginative misinterpretation of his experimental data. When it comes to understanding what is going on with electrons, imagination at these small dimensions is oftentimes used to construct a model of reality that is not correct. Because of the limitations of our senses we have no other alternative: our minds eye must suffice.

                At nano dimensions, things that look like atoms are not really atoms, Free electrons confined in a small volume look and behave like electrons in orbit around atoms, but these electrons are really only artificial atoms with no nucleus what so ever.

                The quantum dot is an example. A number of electrons confined in a quantum well look and behave like they were orbiting a nucleus, but inside that well there is only electrons. The compounds that produce quantum dots exert force on the pile of electrons to keep them confined that mimic the fores that the nucleus uses to confine electrons in their orbits.

                Certain chemical compounds can form nano particles. The structure of these quantum particle aggrogets and there reflective surfaces of there internal structures can both constrain electrons and light as well as form an irregular reflecting plane where light and electrons are bent alternatively by interference and amplification to form a circular path where interference exactly counteracts non linear amplification to force the electrons and light to follow a circular path inside a small volume of space.

                This strange form of EMF is a boson and is not constrained by the Pauli exclusion principle. The angular momentum of this light and electron hybrid or Surface Plasmon Polariton (SPP) is an exact fraction of the wavelength of the SPP. As energy is pumped into this spherical nano volume, the annular momentum of the SPP goes up in quantum steps. 2, 3, 4… When this vortex of pure EMF finally fails, electrons and photons decouple. The failing SPP gives off its accumulated power as photons of black light in the extreme ultraviolet. This is seen in sonoluminescence.

                I believe that the experimental evidence of this quantum electron/photon confinement mechanism is what R. Mills is misinterpreting as a hydrino. But the artificial particle or soliton so formed has no nucleus to produce the EMF angular momentum or spin that Mills sees in his experiments.

                From this misinterpretation of these goings on in subatomic reality, R, Mills has created his own world that exists only in his imagination. Mills as generalize a very special case into his own special view of his own universe.

                • GreenWin

                  Thanks for this reply Axil. You seem to gravitate toward the NASA Langley RC’s focus on SPPs. There is little question LENR is a surface phenomenon dependent on certain geometry. As does Mills’ n/132 hydrino to some extent. And while I do not disagree that Mills has imagined his theory, it is not without third party replication and proof of it predictive abilities. You may find this recent translation of a 2005 interview with Dr. Gerrit Kroesen at Technical University of Eindhoven revealing:

                  http://bit.ly/1DHnqje

          • Axil Axil

            Regarding: the magnetic properties of deuterium.

            According to Piantelli, deuterium is a LENR poison. In the Pd/D system, a deuterium dimer must be formed to produce the zero spin condition.

            • Andreas Moraitis

              In this context it comes into my mind that lithium atoms tend to form a dimer in the gaseous phase. It is indeed called “dilithium”, like the fictional material from “Star Trek”.

          • Axil Axil

            Regarding orthohydrogen hydrogen

            The magnetic anapole beam that produces the long range nature of the LENR reaction is disrupted by orthohydrogen hydrogen in the path of the beam. All magnetically active free floating atoms, molecules, crystals, and ions tend to defocus this beam in its straight line path to the target nuclei.

            • Andreas Moraitis

              Thank you for your answers, Axil. The LeClair effect looks interesting, although it is perhaps not a “low energy” mechanism. (For interested readers: https://nanospireinc.com/Home_Page.php )

              One might expect that the military would keep such a technology behind close doors if it was real.

  • Mike Henderson

    Nobody understands those. http://xkcd.com/1489/

  • GreenWin

    Axil, keep in mind entanglement was originally labelled the EPR Paradox – by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen circa 1935. Entangled particles responding instantly to change in one or the other regardless of distance is the basis for “quantum teleportation.” Attempts to explain this phenomenon are all over the map. A rather simple one is to conclude the notion of distance and thereby time is a fabrication of the human mind. Another is to view entangled pairs like two ping pong balls connected by a hard wire. Turning one rotates the other – “instantly.”
    The Higgs boson and Higgs field is the result of more human fabrication. Years ago this “field” concept was called the “ether.” Higgs arrived after humans decided if they slammed atomic particles together long enough and peered through the rubble hard enough – they would find the most elemental building block of matter. After years of searching, low and behold – they found it. Just like they imagined!
    An equally valid explanation of this “field” is Haisch and Rueda’s view of a quantum flux of virtual particles, which forms a kind of ether or virtual fluid. There is also Rupert Sheldrake’s “morphic field” which expresses how consciousness is actually the fabric of what we now call time and space. Sheldrake’s morphic field is the substance of what Terrence McKenna exclaimed was, “A revolution in causality itself.” Or something like that.
    Superconductivity, quantum entanglement, time dilation/contraction, gravity wells, etc. all suggest stasis or negative flow in these fields. Higgs, morphic, virtual, or quantum vacuum all attempt to explain an idea impossible for human’s to conceive – matter and forces are the result of thought, and all exist in an immediate “present.”

  • Matt Roberts

    does anyone else feel like he made all that up?

    • Axil Axil

      I may not have made things simple enough, but I will get more expressive and meaningful as time marches on. Getting to the bottom of LENR is not that simple.