A Theory to Work With (Anon)

An associate of mine, who resides here in the U.S., and I have for some time been discussing the E-Cat and related LENR topics. He recently shared some ideas concerning the newly published bound neutron tunneling paper.

What’s really nice with Carl-Oscar Gullström’s recently published paper is to see a graduate student taking on the problem and actually pumping out a theory and paper!

In the spring of 2011 I thought that the Gamow Factor — where George Gamow proposed that tunneling can produce fusion at certain levels particle energy — could account for tunneling taking place in the E-Cat reaction, but I thought it might have been proton tunneling . . . neutron tunneling didn’t occur to me because I lacked the energy calculations which I believe are what led Gullström to his conclusions.

The theory presented accounts for the Lithium…most probably the ‘secret-sauce’ catalyst.

Those seeking to replicate Rossi now should be taking this theory into account. It provides a method to experimentally determine whether the theory is accurate because outcomes and values are now predictable according to the theory.

Experiments to disprove or validate this theory now may be undertaken, and I hope that they are.

  • Axil Axil

    http://phys.org/news/2014-11-electromagnetic-fluctuation-plasmas-analogous-so-called.html

    Electromagnetic fluctuation forces across plasmas analogous to so-called weak nuclear interaction forces

    New experiment results tie EMF to processes that effect the dynamics that occur inside the nucleus as a expression of the weak force. This is exciting stuff for the LENR theorist. Mesons control what goes on inside the nucleus. Mesons are just a kind of plasmons that exist between two or more solids at very close distances. One example where this condition applies is the situation that exists in the very small plasmon filled spaces between nanoparticles. This implies that mesons are condensing virtual particles pairs that are equivalent to condensing virtual particle plasmons or sheets of realized positions/electron pairs formed at high energy caused by the Casimir force born in the small distances between nanoparticles.

    I guest at this all along. Its good that it has been discovered.

  • Axil Axil

    I have a disagreement with the naysayer Tom Clarke, about the way virtual particles behave. I say that they can be projected in a tight beam…Tom says that they must radiate in all directions and follow the inverse square law for spherical distribution. For radioactive isotopes to be rapidly stabilized in LENR as embodied in the Ni/H reactor, the strength of virtual particles must somehow be amplified by a projection in a tight beam.

  • Axil Axil

    Chernodub is the originator of the meson condensation process idea in a strong magnetic field.

    http://physik.uni-graz.at/~dk-user/talks/Chernodub_25112013.pdf

    http://homepages.uni-regensburg.de/~eng14891/qcdB_workshop/pdf/QCDB_

    Chernodub supports his position on meson condinsation in a strong magnetic field.

    http://arxiv.org/pdf/1309.4071v1.pdf

    Conclusions.

    In Ref. [1] it was claimed that the charged mesons cannot
    condense in strong magnetic field.

    We point out that the analytical and numerical results
    of Ref. [1] are consistent with the inhomogeneous meson
    condensation predicted in Refs. [5, 6]. In particular,
    a large-volume limit of the two-point correlation function
    calculated in Ref. [1] cannot be used to support the
    absence of the inhomogeneous {meson condensation.

    Moreover,we show that the results of Ref. [1] on

    (i) the behavior of the asymptotic value of the correlation
    function as the function of the system volume,

    (ii)the behavior of the {meson mass as the function of
    the magnetic field are, in fact, consistent with the expected
    crossover transition associated with the inhomogeneous {meson
    condensation in quenched lattice QCD.

    This is similrt to the particle pair production in a strong EMF field when the vacuum becomes non linier.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schwinger_limit

  • Axil Axil

    If the spin energy of polaritons can be
    focused into a tight beam that negates the inverse square law for EMF
    radiation, heat energy pumped into a rotating polariton system(a
    vortex) can greatly amplify both the power carried by emanating
    magnetic photons(an anapole field) and the non-resonant EMF field
    carried by virtual protons. Recent experimental work referenced below
    done in this area show that a tight magnetic beam can be produced at
    the points and steep ridges of micro particles proportional to the
    density of polaritons concentrated by one dimensional
    superconductivity in action there. Also in like manor, the contact
    areas in clusters of nanoparticles also act to focus magnetic beams
    of extreme strength. These atomic level magnetic fields are the most
    powerful fields produced in the universe. When a EMF field of enough
    power is produced, mesons and pions condense out of the vacuum. These
    subatomic particles disrupt the function of the nucleus. Such EMF
    nuclear disruption is now seen in powerful lasers with 10E20 watts
    /cm2 power density. The Ni/H reactor produces the same effect using
    polariton vortexes that form on the surface of Rossi’s nickel
    particles and in clusters of lithium hydride nanoparticles. There is
    also the condensation of these polariton solitons that provide
    super-radiance as another powerful amplification mechanism. The BEC that I am referring to is a polariton soliton BEC.

    see

    Half-solitons in a polariton quantum fluid behave like magnetic monopoles

    http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1204/1204.3564.pdf

  • Axil Axil

    My primary postulate regarding LENR causation theory is that LENR is based on electrodynamics. Another important concept is that all types of LENR phenomena in their various guises are based on the same ultimate
    cause.

    I came to this belief when I first studied the work of Ken Shoulders who showed that transmutation will invariably occur is metals impacted with electric sparks. The EMF based transmutation process is also seen in the
    proton 21 experiments numbering in the thousands where a high energy
    arc transmutes tiny copper ball into a verity of other elements. The
    same type of transmutation pattern is seen is experiments involving
    exploding metal foils in liquid under the action of a high energy
    spark.

    All instances in LENR experimentation involve electric currents or some other like manifestation of EMF. In the Ni/H reactor, the EMF comes from
    plasmons. Plasmons are sheets of electrons, that are confined to the
    surface of transition metals. These electrons come from atomic dipole
    surface vibrations caused by heat, Sharp tiny sub-wavelength sharp
    points and steep linear ridges amplify and localize these electron
    currents in a process called Anderson localization. Such interference
    of electron flow been observed by localization of a Bose–Einstein
    condensate in a 1D disordered optical potential (Billy et al.,
    2008; Roati et al., 2008).

    But the waveforms of electrons and light can be strongly coupled together when their energy are equal. Electrons and photons bind together into a common waveform called a polariton. In a polariton, electrons screen the photons so that photons are also captured at the surface of metal.

    By the way, nickel is a perfect reflector of infrared photons. So
    infrared light is captured between a sheet of electrons and a perfect
    reflector. This lack of dispersion will produce a EMF particle thath
    is a combination of infrared light and electrons. This particles is
    called a surface plasmon polariton(SPP). The waveform of an SPP is
    part light and part electron.

    This particle is unseal in that it has very little mass. Because it is a boson, it can pack together is extreme densities. The Rules of BEC formation say that the maximum temperature that a BEC can exist at is a fraction of the mass of the boson and the density of its population.

    The proof of this statement about the possibility that a BEC can form at high temperatures is witnessed in the recent development of the polariton
    laser that runs at room temperature.

    If you need documentation of these assertions listed above, I will be happy to provide them. Please specify the particulars.

  • http://www.lenrnews.eu/lenr-summary-for-policy-makers/ AlainCo

    total superconduction at high temperature is not really observed,

    for resources on HTSC in Palladium Hydride you can read

    http://coldfusionnow.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/SC-LENR.pdf

    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/235450977_Nonuniversal_temperature_dependencies_of_the_low-frequency_ac_magnetic_susceptibility_in_high-T__c_superconductors

    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/255655260_Magnetic_and_transport_properties_of_PdH_intriguing_superconductive_observations

    (NB: indication of Tc at 260k )

    this is still cold, but if you consider that HTSC and LENr are linke dto collective effects, some effect on conduction can be imagined.

    It seems that recently some found effect linked to superconduction that is at higher temperature but is not SC… I cannot find the article (few weeks/month ago)…

    note that LENR is linked also with protons conductors.

    the idea to rule out HTSC similar effect at 1400C is in fact a circular argument similar to rejecting LENR because it cannot exist…

    anyway the conservation of miracle says that this effect if confirmed is a facet of LENR.

  • Axil Axil

    There is a third possibility. This is that there exists many false assumptions made about the behavior of the Ni-H reactor. This behavior does not conform to expected norms of measurement.

    My theory of Ni-H behavior posulates a generalized state of Boson condensation that exists inside the entire structure of the reactor. This superconductive state would result in a increase in the flow rate of electrons inside the reactor. This behavior was seen in the wire that Celani used in his experiments.

    http://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/CelaniFobservatio.pdf
    Dr. G. Miley also saw superconductivity in packets of hydrogen in nanocavities.
    My theory of LENR also would expect the formation of electrons as a byproduct of the LENR reaction in violation of the law of charge conservation. I expect to see pions condensed out of the vacuum which would decay into electrons. These pions are the agents that underpin the LENR reaction.
    As a result of these unconventional behaviors inside a LENR reactor, calibration usually done in this experiments is impossible as well as the unpredictable behavior of electrically connected sensors connected to the reactor structure.

  • http://www.lenrnews.eu/lenr-summary-for-policy-makers/ AlainCo

    you hypothesis of measurement error is based on assumed incompetence at a stratospheric level, stupidity of Rossi and Cheroke (who send a broken reactor) who conspirate without 99% probability to be caught.

    You need extraordinary evidence, you have none.

    note that from recent photography inspection, it seems the clamp are ok…
    I don’t play this game with photo in a report, because I know engineers cannot do that student mistake without sure seeing it.

    on joule heating, there is much more challenge on electricity to deny watmeter result…
    we miss some data, like waveforms, impedance, temperature and loading (yes you forget it an an hydride LENR reactor) resistance sensibility… but there is no reasont to challenge electricity to please people who refuse the reality of hundreds of experimental resulst, without the least serious paper to do it.

    what happens is somatoparaphrenia delusion… desperate tentative to conciliate beliefs with evidences by inventing conspiracy theories.

    the only explanation is not an incredible incompetence, plus a serie of incredible luck, plus incredible stupidity of cherokee, rossi, …

    it is that it works.

  • Hank Mills

    The Ni62 could be a fuel. It might undergo a reaction with hydrogen. This could mean that after the other isotopes of nickel are converted to Ni62, the Ni62 could continue producing energy.

    • Zeddicus Zul Zorander

      In that case the reactor would have plenty of fuel left and I like that idea. So first all possible ni isotopes are converted to ni62 using Li in the process? I thought the Ni62 isotope was seen as stable end product. Do you have any idea how the Ni62 isotope could produce energy? Is this were the neutron tunneling comes into effect or does something now happen with hydrogen? If tunneling, what would be the resulting isotope? Ni60 -> Ni58? At this point we are back at the Li supported conversion to Ni62 so Li determines when the reactor runs out of steam? Clearly I have no idea what I’m talking about…

      • Omega Z

        “Clearly I have no idea what I’m talking about.”
        Thanks a lot ZZZ.
        Do you realize how much time I’ve spent reading your posts.

        AND NOW, You say you don’t know what your talking about. Shishh.
        You should have said something long ago.

        Oh well, I also have a confession-
        “Clearly, I also have no idea what I’m talking about.”
        Take that… 🙂 uha uha,

        • Zeddicus Zul Zorander

          I have spent so much time reading Storms books, McKubre on youtube, Mats books, TIP reports, MFMP projects, basic chemistry research (yes, that which I should have learned in school anyway), reading all posts on e-catworld, trying to understand Axil Axil or to fathom neutron tunneling and bose condensates, but all to no avail. Still don’t get any of it. So it’s good to hear from another soul who’s equally lost in all this chemo-nuclear violence. We both know nothing so I think we may have just taken the first step on the path to wisdom. (See how I made us look good anyway? 🙂

    • LCD

      Ni62 seems to be a valley or energy minima for whatever system of reactions are occurring. Having the highest binding energy per nucleon has to be a big hint about what’s going on IMHO.

      I don’t think Li to Ni is a major part of the reaction (without many intermediate steps), more likely Li7 is going to 2He4 in some form or fashion whether it be proton or neutron capture or some other thing. That would make sense as to why the Li7 is depleted more than the Li6.

      The next logical step would be to test for He production but who knows when that will happen.

      These end-products to point to the Widom-Larsen theory being somewhat relevant. With that theory there is a natural reason for why you need hydrogen (to form neutron or neutron-like particles) and it explains isotope shifts to some extent as opposed to elemental shifts.

      What is not explained is lack of unstable intermediate isotopes although I suppose you can make the case that in a neutron rich environment this naturally leads to stable isotopes. But it would have to be more than that because we just don’t see any type of radiation in the ash after it’s been take out of the reactor.

      It’s also interesting to note that Ni has some natural resonance points where Neutron absorption jumps up at higher temps being comparable to Boron.

  • DickeFix

    I just wish that the authors of the report soon will release the raw data or at least respond to the inconcistencies that Giancarlo and Andrea.S. have pointed out. If data was recorded continously it should be easy within a day or two find the reasons for these discrepansies. I have to admit that the total silence from the research group and Rossis very agressive reply to Giancarlo (a.k.a. Raman) has killed the initial hope I had after the report.

    The simplest theory that solves all three mysteries (nonproportionality of the Joule heating, the reversed phase traces, the apparent excess heating, the almost pure Ni-62 in the ash, the lack of gamma radiation) is that one of the clamps on both power meters were reversed during the active e-cat test and that the reactor was loaded with Ni-62 from the start.

    Otherwise we need not only a new theory how cold fusion can occur without gamma radiation and with purely enriched Ni-62 as end product; we need also a theory to explain the mysteries on the electrical side.

    • Hank Mills

      If the clamps were reversed, how did they measure the power consumption of the control box and get perfect unity for the dummy run? That tells me the test results are valid.

      • http://www.lenrnews.eu/lenr-summary-for-policy-makers/ AlainCo

        yes,
        the problem with “the simplest theory” is that for the deniers, LENr have never been proven and is absolutely and irremediably impossible.

        for them having a drunk electric engineer swap current clamps in the only setup among dozens of possible one, that show a COP=3, not detecting per-phase negative power, or huge incoherent per-phase reactive power, with a conspiration to make the control box seems consuming few % of energy, is much more probable than having a transition metal hydride produce excess heat above chemistry range, as hundreds of scientists have observed.

        You see that clearly ins conspiracy groups, where some people cannot imagine that their own beliefs are wrong, and behave like the victims of somatoparaphrenia who accuse their doctor to have sewed on their shoulder, the doctor 3rd arm just to make them feel uncomfortable (I invent nothing, a sane left hemisphere not helped by a damaged right hemisphere is able to imagine that)…

        • psi2u2

          Nice tirade. 😉

    • Omega Z

      DickeFix
      You’re assuming this test was done for us or the scientific community.
      It was actually done for a selected few Entities. Don’t count on them providing Us “ALL” the data. I doubt that will ever happen. At most, we may see some clarifications of the report at their leisure.

      Elforsk who was a major financial contributor of the test has had access to all the Data & their own analysis of it for months. Their Immediate response after the public release of the paper, they will start their own R&D labs into LENR. This would be in addition to their current energy research labs. Considering their expertise, the data must have been more then reasonably convincing if their willing to start dumping money into it..

    • Obvious

      Fixing the Joule heating problem with the cube root rule for the secondary cables should mildly improve the COP, by reducing the calculated electrical input values for the device. Effectively the cable Joule heating value in W will nearly triple for the dummy run values using the cube root rule (from 7 to 19 W). But even with triple the Joule heating, the comparison of the total heat output estimate to the measured and calculated total electrical input of the dummy run is improved.

    • Axil Axil

      What only Rossi has done is produce nuclear reactions inside a steady state Boson condensate. Inside this condensate, there exists an unexplored wilderland totally unlike the world we now live in. Someday, there will be starships formed from this stiff were our progeny will be protected from the dangers and perils of intergalactic adventure.

      • pelgrim108

        How is this boson condensate produced and maintained within the Hot-Cat? Please with as much laymans terms as possible.

        • Axil Axil

          There is a special form of EMF particle formed on the surface a hot metal. This type of EMF is very clingy and will always vibrate in unison in their countless trillions. The Boson condensate get very strong as more and more polaritons are created. Those special microparticles that Rossi has developed are like EMF field projectors that sets up this EMF based condensate. Its a lot like how a laser works. In fact, a polariton laser has just been built.

          http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polariton_laser

          Lithium hydride(LiH) nanoparticles come together in a bunch and join in to this Boson condensate. Without these special nickel particles, no condensate would be setup and the LiH would not do anything, But under the influence of the Boson condensate, these LiH clusters produce the nuclear reactions through the creation of intense coherent anapole magnetic fields.

          The power to produce nuclear reactions comes through the coherent coordination among all the uncountable trillions of polaritons all working together as one. A condensate is many things working as one.

          There is a positive feed back loop much like a chain reaction that produces more polaritons from the energy of nuclear reactions that the polaritons catalyze.

          How this all happens is at the cutting edge or just beyond current science that few scientists are even familiar with. Not even Rossi knows what he has done. That is, very complicated, beautiful, and involved stuff.

          • Andreas Moraitis

            If the excess energy comes from nuclear reactions, what happens with the radiation? Would the BEC be able to block or absorb it?

            • Axil Axil

              The way the world works inside a boson condensate is different then in our world. Everything is equally shard, both energy coming into the condensate and energy going out. In science, this is called superradience and superaborbtion,

              • Andreas Moraitis

                Thank you, this would explain a lot. Interestingly, Widom & Larsen have a patent application on a SPP-based gamma absorber:

                http://www.google.com/patents/WO2007030740A2?cl=en

                Apparently, this is just another ‘camouflaged’ LENR patent, like the one of Dennis Cravens.

          • pelgrim108

            Thanks for the explanation, it was very readable and interesting.
            Is there any place in this constellation of activities for Frank Znidarsic his dimensional frequency of 1.094 megahertz-meters to play out?

          • Ted-X

            Axil-Axil,
            Please comment on this idea:
            The Bose-Einstein condensate can perhaps form at the temperatures of liquid nitrogen, provided that a lot of pressure is used. This would be analogous to the condensation of gases; below their critical point pressure can cause them to condense. The more pressure, the closer to their critical point one can get … from the range of temperatures below their critical pressures. The temperatures near the absolute zero are used (to get BECs), because no pressure is applied.
            If this is correct, Rossi makes his secret source by cryogenic treatment of nickel powder under static or pulsating high pressure. The formation of neutron shells outside the nuclei could be related. Exchange of neutrons between neutron shells of the metastable atoms (some metastable atoms with large neutron shells are stable for years) can bring the neutron exchange between the elements.
            —> This is just a speculation, but there is a lot of hints pointing into this direction.

  • Daniel Maris

    I’m sure Bob Greenyer will take note!