Andrea Rossi’s 1978 Waste-to-Fuel Patent

I am grateful to Mats Lewan for making available to me this pdf of the patent filed by Andrea Rossi in 1978 for a waste-to-fuel process that we mentioned here yesterday. The title of the patent (translated from Italian by Google) is “Procedure for the recovery of industrial and urban waste. Apparatus and relative productivity obtained”. Rossi has claimed that the process being used in the Waste-to-Biofuels and Chemicals Facility in Edmonton, Canada — built and operated by Enerkem Alberta Biofuels — is based on his work.

I don’t know of any way to verify how closely the Enerkem plant resembles the process described in this patent — the overall concept is of course similar, but I am sure that there have been technological and engineering developments over the years that will have resulted in changes taking place.

This doesn’t have much relevance to the E-Cat, but this is an interesting item in connection with Andrea Rossi who has had a lifetime of involvement in various energy production inventions.

The patent is all in Italian — if any Italian speakers read it and would care to comment, I know it would be appreciated!

BREVETTO PETROLIO – 1978 by ecatworld

  • we want LENR Fusione Fredda

    PS I did look up FHR UCB. I need another degree or perhaps two (academically speaking), but the outcome seems promising.
    Any process that becomes uncontrollable will, and unfortunately mankind is special at blundering even simple processes. And mankind fears ‘losing face’ more than the consequences of a blunder, which inevitably worsens the scenarios.
    Take a look at Isao Hashimoto’s 14 minutes of art on what we have been capable of doing in 65 years.
    By the way, neither Chernobyl nor Fukushima are solved problems (contamination and radiation wise), years down the line.
    And they don’t seem cheap (where feasible) jobs to deal with, either.

    Bowl effect is correct for the Po valley, and yes there are coal plants Funny enough, two of them are located in one of the most historically and artistically famous places in the world, Venezia.
    Yes, Italy was extremely productive. Hundreds of thousands of small businesses (the country’s backbone, hard working, tax paying crowd) closed these past two years alone. Gone. The large industry, where not the garbage mafia, has left pollution (ILVA steel plant is an example and death.

    Not a pretty picture for our kids.

  • we want LENR Fusione Fredda

    Yes, I know I do not know. And have no vis polemica, only questions.
    The US is a wonderful Country of opportunity, but one where children shoot other children. I mean it has good and bad, as everywhere does. Surely the freedom of enterprise, and (in most cases) of expression, is the reason Rossi left corrupt Italy for the US.
    GMOs might be a good thing to reduce the use of pesticides, provided they do not create a bigger or equivalent problem (
    About nuclear (current fission) sloppiness, there are articles covering the civil issue and the military issue (
    One can only try to keep informed, opinions may change through information and goodwill. Fur us ignorant people this is a very constructive approach.

  • we want LENR Fusione Fredda

    My ignorance is unlimited, always grateful for learning.
    Air pollution in LA:
    Air pollution (NOx’s & SOx’s) in Po Valley:
    Air quality Shanghai:

  • we want LENR Fusione Fredda

    My point is simply that there is respect involved; often the establishment decides for all, making mistakes and not admitting them because of the lobbying privilege pockets which have been created and benefit from these mistakes.

  • we want LENR Fusione Fredda

    Thank you for the time.
    Yes, it is about where we live, and how. How our kids can and will live, wherever they are.
    When I say “we” breathe, it is because wherever you go, you can see the blackish-orange air on the horizon; if you live in the Pianura Padana (the Po valley in Italy) you might as well be in Shanghai. If you go to Dubai and observe the skyline, or in LA, or you land in Milan, you can see the pollution. It is “haze”.
    About GMOs, the problem is that we do not know the long term consequences of what is being genetically modified. Certain branded crop seeds have sinister names, like the missiles: “cruiser”. Wherever they are planted these industrially owned and patented seeds create problems either for bees (which are vital for human beings, pollination almost entirely depends on them) or problems for other natural crops. One has to purchase more seeds because they do not reproduce. Plus, the long term consequences of ingested GMOs by humans remain uncharted territory, an educated guess at best.
    About antibiotics, the problem is that they are used in low dosages to prevent livestock animals living in normally unsurvivable conditions (amassed in very small confined spaces, in unhealthy conditions) from perishing. These antibiotics used to maximize profits (combined with hormones which make animals gain more weight and grow at a much faster pace) have now made viruses and bacteria extremely resistant. Now in hospitals weaker patients die because antibiotics do not work any more against these super viruses and bacteria.
    About the 500 exajoules, the nuclear plants are just often poorly built and managed, again, to maximize profits. Organizations are corrupt, and those who are regularly short changed are the environment and people, citizens.
    We cold go on for eons.
    Everything boils down to this one hope for cold fusion, possibly a gigantic step, finally, in the right direction.
    The other steps may soon follow.

  • we want LENR Fusione Fredda

    Broncobet, I am not arguing that there is no pollution apart from radiation.
    We ingest, breathe and drink an incredible amount of chemicals, hormones, pesticides, GMOs, heavy metals. Willingly through gadgets like suncreams (nanoparticles) and shoes (third world production of goods without any environmental consideration), unwillingly through substances such as hormones and low dosage antibiotics that are fed to the horrifically reared and industrially processed animals we buy, and unwittingly through the hydrocarbons and dioxins that are released in atmosphere.
    The problem with everything is that we human beings are messy, greedy, mean and have difficulty in recognizing mistakes: we (only rarely, naturally) prefer to shush and deny, even faced with evidence.
    So the problem with fission may not so much be the fission in itself, but the ego of the chief of the plant (Chernobyl), who one evening wants to test it to its limits and beyond, for his own agenda. Or the problem may be the genius(es) who placed two diesel generators at ground level in a 6-reactor nuclear plant located in one of the most active seismic areas in the world (Fukushima), where tsunamis are forecasted and a known threat.
    China may (and will) aggressively pursue its fission program, the UK pursue its fracking ambitions in national parks, and Peru can pass a law by which protesters or activists can legally be killed by police forces with complete impunity.
    All this can not stop some people discussing and questioning the subjects, trying to find more information, reasonable alternatives.
    Or, perhaps, the best thing is to hope for a swift colonization of Mars – as Earth may be truly doomed. I check my ego at the door.

  • we want LENR Fusione Fredda

    …do play a role with these cancers. Nobody has denied it. They just, today, can not scientifically link the cause to the effect.

  • we want LENR Fusione Fredda
  • we want LENR Fusione Fredda

    Outflows should be proven by third independent parties. It almost never is the case. “Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?”

  • we want LENR Fusione Fredda

    Description of the “apparatus” Page 4- :

    “- an automatic garbage loading/’feeding’ unit

    – an airtight distillation chamber

    – a combustion chamber provided with a burner

    – a refrigerator

    – a tank for the collection of “reflux-petroleum” provided with a pressure release valve for the exit of “reflux-gas”

    – a tank for the collection of “reflux-gas” or piping for the supply of this “reflux-gas” to the burner.”.
    The images:
    “Figure 1 is the lateral view of the apparatus.
    Figure 2 is the A-A section of the figure 1
    Figure 3 is a schematic plan view of figure 1 (…)
    The distillation chamber (1) has two lateral guillotine hatches, (2) and (3), of which one, (2), communicating with the automatic loader/feeder (4), and the other one (3) with a watertight large vat (5).
    The automatic loader/feeder (4) features a shovel

  • Maxfield Q Norse

    So, this is about stalking GreenWin across the internet?
    There is some grudge that multiple internet personas are hunting him down for? And you all view this as legitimate behavior?

    • Veblin

      I love a sock puppet mystery show. Pierre Ordinaire has a two year history of being your kinder gentler reasonable skeptic.

      He does have a voice but is not real active.
      LENR, maybe?
      Rossie, prove it!
      Free Energy, everything seen so far is a scam.

      I suspect there is more to PO than we know.
      What is your connection to ECN? Who are you there?
      Why did you become pseudo ECN GreenWin 16 days ago.
      Why was Hector McNuget born 16 days ago?
      Do you have any connection to Gary Wright climbing out of his hole and posting three times on ECN 16 to 19 days ago?

      Do you love yachts and sailing?
      Discussion on CNN
      Steve Jobs’ yacht revealed, christened ‘Venus’
      Pierre Ordinaire • 2 years ago
      Actually the Goddess of prosperity was Abundantia, and the Goddess of victory, Victoria
      Discussion on Pure Energy Blog
      Pierre Ordinaire • 8 months ago
      Many years ago, I crewed in Puerto Rico for an industrialist on his racing 43′ sailboat.

      Are you George ( I need a sail for my boat) Hody – Al Potenza –
      maryyugo – other pups – It might be nice to again use my real pseudonym, LOL?
      Are you kemosabe – Joshua Cude = Popeye – other pups?
      Are you Gary Wright and other pups I don’t remember and don’t care to look up?

      Have savior fair Pierre Ordinaire.

      Defend yourself. The charge is Sock Puppetry.

      • bachcole

        I will stand with the proposition that all free energy (NOT almost free, NOT extremely inexpensive, but free energy with NO physical input or physical source) IS a scam.
        Roger Bird

        Subject: Re: New comment posted on Andrea Rossi’s 1978 Waste-to-Fuel Patent

  • Gerrit

    I have been following the ecat story since April 2011, thus next month, July 2014, will be the 40th month. In the bible the number 40 represents “a period of testing or judgement”.

    I spent many months to read through the scientific literature, it learned me a lot about how the science business is run. I spent numerous hours on internet forums replying to ignorants and trolls, it learned me a lot about how people argue their fixed point of view and refuse to think for themselves.

    There were many highlights, like the start of SKINR at the University of Missouri or the LENR announcements by NASA. There were a few well done articles in the press, but unfortunately the mainstream science “journalists” are still hiding under their rocks of mainstream conformity.

    I am convinced that there is a lot to be discovered in the coming years and decades, but there is still not much tangible evidence for me personally after these almost 40 months of “trail period”.

    I have somber thoughts that, even if the report will be conclusive and a first 1MW plant will be in operation, the stakeholders in current science and energy will lobby to slow down the transition process in USA and Europe.

    • Daniel Maris

      They might slow it down, but they can’t stop it – if it’s real.

    • Maxfield Q Norse

      The train is leaving the station, anyone can choose to climb on board at any time, or be left behind. Those are the only options remaining.

  • blanco69

    There must be some differences. Rossi’s tech is over 35 years old. Plus you’d think that market conditions currently are more ripe for this now than they were back in ’78. Still, they won’t be for long. Once we’re all in ecat cars, the bottom will fall out of the biofuels market. So maybe Rossi wishing them good luck is a joke.

  • Pierre Ordinaire

    GreenWin says:

    “Morning fellas.

    Rosie claims to have a “safety certificate” from SGS for his industrial E-Cat. But skeps know these things is easily faked. Well, this morning a Senior Skep sends a red flag onna story about fakes:

    Like we really need someone tells us its easy to buy a certificate. It’s bad for business.”

    • Maxfield Q Norse

      That story is about faked safety inspection certificates for parts used in fission nuclear plants.

      What has that got to do with LENR fusion? Or Rossi? Or E-Cats?

      I am lost on what you are trying to say.

  • ecatworld

    Frank Acland:
    When I applied for that patent I was 27 years old, with a 6 years experience in production of waste to energy plants and air pollution control systems. I designed, patented and manufactured my plants, and used to go personally to sell them. At those times my competitors called me “the Caterpillar” for the amount of work I was able to do…wherever there was a plant to do, I was there ( he,he,he…it was not easy to beat me in a competition to get a Customer). Then I put in the tech of this patent all the money earned, and lost everything in 1995 ( see
    Warm Regards,

  • we want LENR Fusione Fredda

    I am not technical, by any means.

    To understand this myself, I tried to very synthetically and liberally translate.

    The patent describes the dry burning, in absence of oxygen/not in contact with air, at a certain temperature (250-500°C) and pressure (1-5 atmospheres) of garbage/waste, creating a result of 3 types of synthetic hydrocarbons (with the prefix “refluo-” which can not only be translated as “waste-” because there is also a “reflux” – reversing flux – concept in the etymology of the word in Italian). The process is called a “dry distillation”. There is also a concept of ‘self-sustainability’ of the motorized procedure (pages 6, 7): after it has been initiated through an initial input of some oil or methane gas fuelled engine, subsequently the engine should function with the “reflux-gas” produced in the process described in the patent.

    These three types of synthetic hydrocarbons (I use the terminology from the very interesting post by artefact, here below) produced are: a liquid (likened to petroleum), a gas (likened to methane) and a solid (likened to coke, or mineral carbon).

    Page 3 shows the quantity output per each type from 1 Kg of “refuse” or waste, or garbage. As everyone can see, the efficiency is described to be 30% (1,000 kg/hr of garbage/waste gives 300 kg of “reflux-oil” .

    The “dry distillation” of “urban refuse” or “urban waste/garbage” is thought to cause the “cracking” of molecules “with the formation of saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon chains that have a relatively low number of carbon atoms, possibly with tied N, S or O that form a mix of composites showing a behaviour that is very similar to crude oil/petroleum”. “Other byproducts, such as N organic compounds or thio-organic, acid inorganic, such as hydrochloric or sulphydric acids, alcohols, tar byproducts, inorganic salts, ashes, etc. can also obviously be formed in this process”.

    The processing of garbage in the world is a huge problem.

    For decades in Italy (just as an example) all types of garbage and waste, dangerous and not, has been thrown in landfills. Mostly the illegality of the business is the norm. It is common knowledge in Italy that the waste business is in the hands of organized crime (call it mafia or the other dozen of Italian names in the local dialect, depending on the region). Italy is witnessing an endless string of scandalous findings of crime and collusion with politics and politicians in this realm. Some frozen food companies (like Findus, Orogel do not purchase agricultural products from the “terra dei fuochi” (land of fires) where both organized crime and disorganized stupidity burn the garbage both in the landfills and on the roads, in open air. And this is just peanuts, there is so much more about waste in the air, in the earth, in the sea.

    Langkawi, a dream island on the Malaysian border with Thailand, has an incinerator – by no means modern; and the inhabitants are used to gather some dry fallen palm leaves and plastic bottles or whatever garbage, and burn them, probably to clean up a little of the ubiquitous garbage on sea, land and beaches. No information on cancer and PCBs, but lots of praying…

    According to a documentary shown on German and French TV, some of our age-old nuclear plants (France, UK -check out minute 32.22 of the film) discharge some of their cooling waters directly into the sea (

    Garbage is and has been always connected with earth-moving business: in Italy “earth-movement” is a business notoriously tied to the mafia, or organized crime. Not always, obviously. Hopefully.

    There was an article on the Guardian about someone jailed for exporting waste to Africa (, what news. Romania is a big waste dump from Italy ( and many ships have been sunk by organized crime around Italian coastlines ( and I doubt the Baltic Sea is completely free from this sort of problems.

    To cut a long story short, in my opinion, there is a convergence of necessity between our waste producing in-civilization and the hunger for energy. Thinking about Mitsubishi Heavy Industries’ trasmutation patent, especially after Fukushima, makes the subject of waste quite intertwined with energy. Both subjects seem (to me) to have a direct effect on the future of human survival (we speak about the bees and neonicotinoids next time).

  • Andreas Moraitis

    There are two patents by Enerkem – both provisional applications – on the “Production of ethanol from methanol”. The second one seems to be a follow-up version:

    They mention that the synthesis gas can be produced from biomass, but the process itself is apparently not included. There is a reference to a “U.S. published patent application No. 2007/0270511”. This is a patent by “Woodland Chemical Systems Inc.“ with the title “System and method for converting biomass to ethanol via syngas“:

    Here you can find citations of many other patents. Maybe one could follow this trail back to Rossi.

  • bitplayer

    There was a notion posted at one time (by Christine?) that Rossi may have made observations while working on his waste-to-fuel converter that led to his work in LENR. Which leads me to wonder where in the patent there might be mention of catalysts or catalytic converters.

    • artefact

      The bergius process (method of production of liquid hydrocarbons) uses Nickel or other catalysts (tin, iron etc.), Hydrogen and heat:

    • friendlyprogrammer

      Rossi also published a book when he was 28. I think it was a book on waste management as well so that would be a lifetime dedicated to environmental science if not influenced by.

      • bitplayer

        Nice tie into Darden