The following was submitted by E-Cat World Reader Gordon Docherty
I came across the following on the Cold Fusion Now website (via Alain Coetmeur ‘s LENR revolution in process, cold fusion website) — an interesting presentation from E. N. Tsyganov, Cold Fusion Power, International, OSNovation Systems, Inc., Santa Clara, CA :
for a seminar, entitled “DD fusion in conducting crystals” by Edward Tsyganov, to be held on July 7th (3:30 pm) at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in the N. N. Bogolyubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics in Dubna, Russia near Moscow.
Basically, in the presentation, he points out the empirically incontrovertible evidence for D-D “cold” fusion seen in accelerator experiments and the reason for it. As he states:
“Target deuterium atoms implanted into metals are no longer in (the) s-state. The free electron cloud in a metal causes the electron of an implanted atom to occupy the excited p-state. The magnitude of the screening potential of 300 eV and above in experiments on DD-fusion accelerators indicates that the incident deuterium atoms in the conductor crystal are also moving in (a) p-state. These processes allow the two deuterium nuclei to get close without the Coulomb repulsion in the potential niche of the crystal cell at a very close distance.”
In other words (and in line with the Brillouin “sweet-spot”), crystals structures provide potential wells that overwhelm those seen between two D-atoms, with the result that the D-atoms come closer together, especially as they move from the s-state to a p-state (“The free electron cloud in a metal causes the electron of an implanted atom to occupy the excited p-state”). Further, he goes on to hypothesize that:
“A possible cause of slowing of nuclear decays with decreasing excitation energy: residual Coulomb barrier between the deuterium nuclei in the potential well of the strong interactions”
“One can assume that the potential inside of the Coulomb barrier common well after the strong interactions of the fusion reaction is no longer a retaining factor for neutrons, and neutrons can almost freely move from one proton to another.”
“According to our hypothesis, the rate of nuclear decay of a compound nucleus 4He* is a function of the excitation energy of the nucleus (Ek). We assume that when Ek is around 0 (thermal energy), the compound nucleus 4He* is metastable with a lifetime of about 10-15 s. After a time of around 10-16 seconds, the compound nucleus is no longer an isolated system, since virtual photons from the 4He* can reach the nearest electrons in a crystal, and carry away the excitation energy of the compound nucleus 4He*. It must be emphasized that the above hypothesis is merely an attempt to explain the well-established experimental fact of the virtual absence of nuclear decay channels of the intermediate compound nucleus 4He* in the process of cold fusion”
In other words, the formed 4He becomes “energetically connected” with the lattice and is able to transfer its excess energy off through the lattice via virtual photons while allowing neutrons transfer to neighboring atoms, so preventing the formation of high-energy neutrons and high-energy gammas that would otherwise have been given off in the fusion of two D-atoms. This energetic connection is likely much enhanced by inducing resonance.
So, in a nutshell, here is yet another empirically incontrovertible piece of evidence for D-D “cold” fusion, this time from accelerator experiments and, of course, with low energy neutrons available, more Deuterons (i.e. Deuterium nucleii) can form from Protium nucleii (i.e. Protons), while with many (excess) energetic electrons in the cloud, more esoteric particles, such as “Negatrons” (Light (Y) and Heavy (Y#) Electrons), Virtual Neutrons (Shielded Proton-Electron pairs), and even regular Neutrons can form, as well as Metallic Hydrogen chains (“Hydroton”). The hydrogen atom p-state in the crystal may also provide the mechanism by which Hydrinos are formed.