— Is a Cold Fusion Reactor Possible? is a site I’d never heard of until today — it’s a site where people can vote and express their opinion on controversial questions. A question posted today asks, “Is a Cold Fusion Reactor Possible?”

So far there is only one vote for this question (in the negative), but I thought I would bring it to the attention of the readership here in case people would like to contribute to the discussion there. I see the potential for some vigorous debate!

If you want to read or participate in the debate you can do so here.

  • Gordon Docherty

    Inertial Confinement Hot Fusion, like Magnetic Confinement Hot Fusion, is one of those ideas that is 50 years away, and always will be, for practical energy generation, not because fusion does not occur, but because the conditions required to initiate and sustain fusion are just too onerous: as a star forms, the intense gravity of the star and increasing magnetism works in favour of confinement of an ever hotter plasma to the point that ignition can occur with the stable temperature being around 15-20 Million Kelvin at the core. Hot fusion on Earth, on the other hand, does not have such a “benign” atmosphere for thermonuclear fusion to be initiated and sustained, so the conditions have to be created artificially.

    Now, trying to achieve the required pressure and magnetism here on Earth as seen in the Sun is (currently) just not possible, so some adjustments have to be made. The Sun’s internal pressure is around 200-300 billion times higher than Earth’s atmospheric pressure, so we cannot hope to recreate this. Instead, we use just a few times Earth’s atmospheric pressure. We can, however, ramp up the heat, with the heat of any Hot Fusion process on Earth about 7 – 10 times higher than in the Sun. This just leaves one more option open: confinement.

    Put at its simplest, confinement increases the probability of high-energy nucleii colliding. In fact, nucleii collide in nature even at low temperatures, but only very, very occasionally. Both inertial confinement and magnetic confinement seek to confine nucleii using electromagnetic fields in what is otherwise unconstrained space-time. This is kind of like trying to direct bullets by blowing on them. Blow hard enough on enough bullets and some will eventually hit each other.

    Now, some in the fusion field have realized that the probability of “bullets hitting each other” can be massively increased by using very powerful directed magnetic fields to drive the bullets in toward the same point. This is the route being taken by the Dense Plasma Fusioneers, and it is a good route – much more likely to deliver a lot more energy out than in as the energy and ejecta resulting from the collision is directed away from the bullets coming in and, what is more, the energy and ejecta coming out can be directly tapped for electricity, with no boiling of water required (so eliminating loss due to heat energy transference).

    This is the story of hot fusion.

    This is not the end of the story, for hidden in the above is the small caveat “in unconstrained space-time”. What happens, then, if we directly manipulated space-time – allowing channels to be created along which the bullets travel (a bit like the Death-star trench in Star Wars). How would we do that?

    Well, back to stellar objects, for objects that are large enough, their gravity directly affects space-time: if we, as an outside observer, watch a man with a time piece approach a super-massive object, such as a huge star or black hole, to us the man and time piece appear to slow down. For the man carrying the time piece, however, his time piece appears to go at the same rate, while our time appears to speed up. Thus, the fabric of space-time is being directly affected. Our clock near the black hole goes more slowly than the clock far from it in free space.

    Now, looking instead at the very small, geometrically constrained cavities known as “Casimir cavities” – named after the Dutch physicist Hendrik Casimir – we also see some very strange behaviour. In particular, if two positively charged parallel plates are placed very close to one another in opposition to form a Casimir cavity between and then released they do not fly apart, as would be expected given they are both positively charged, but rather fall together. To cut a long story short, something is happening to the fabric of space-time in between the plates, causing pressure from outside the plates to force them together – like two ships coming too close to one another in the sea. This “something” is expressed either as a lowering of space-time energy density (due to longer wave length transient quanta being excluded from the cavity) or an apparent increase in frequency as longer wave length quanta squeeze space-time in the time direction so that they remain fitting between the plates as the space reduces. The net effect is that, from inside the cavity, all appears to remain the same, while from the outside, the “clock rate” appears to speed up – and speed up dramatically.

    Now, pushing nucleii through these cavities of now “compressed” space-time along the time axis, and probabilities of events skyrocket, even at quite moderate temperature increases to around 460-475K (186.85 C +). These space-time compressed areas also have other interesting possibilities, allowing for the existence of what appear to be fractional states of hydrogen – hydrinos – as the observer is now observing a hydrogen atom that has, in effect, been partially squashed along the time axis. Another effect of Casimir Cavities, of course, is the speeding up of naturally occurring (at least from the external observers’ perspectives) phenomena by many orders of magnitude – such as chemical reactions, which interact with the changed space-time geometry without consuming the cavity. This is, of course, which is exactly what is seen in the humble chemical catalyst. Indeed, this is how catalysts work. Catalysts are skeletal in nature, so creating natural Casimir cavity pockets, that enable reactions to occur at a much greater rate than normal – and it is exactly this that is being taken advantage of in newly claimed energy sources such as from Brillouin Energy, Industrial Heat’s / Rossi’s e-Cat / hot cat, Defkalion’s reactor, Blacklight Power’s CIHT and SF-CIHT cells, SPAWAR / Navy Patent for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste using LENR (massively reducing half-lives of radioactive materials by converted then to gaseous form and feeding them through Casimir pockets to “speed up” time) , Swartz-Hagelstein’s NANOR device, and even Fleischmann-Pons’ original, misunderstood, “Cold Fusion” device, which was seen as an electrolytic cell, when it was, in reality, a Casimir environment, the pockets being porivded by the rough surfaces of the anodes / cathodes in the cell.

    So, terrestrial inertial / magnetic confinement hot fusion systems may be getting all the money, but the real results are coming from Dense Plasma Focus Fusion and, more interestingly, compressed space-time “Casimir” technologies that are already showing energy densities into the Billions of Joules per Liter of source “fuel” (energy = power x time and time is much speeded up, the opposite of the man on the edge of the black hole). The “fuel” in this case is actually ordinary water from which diatomic hydrogen molecules are extracted and then disassociated into monatomic hydrogen to be fed through Casimir cavities (or similar spaces such as Brillouin zones) using phononic pulses to encourage coherence and dense, sharply defined packets of particles to increase energy density and rate of reaction.

    To anyone who may still have doubts, the age of space-time geometry compressed in the time dimension is dawning, as LENR, Hydrinos, and a host of other techniques that have many more similarities in structure than differences including, critically, a 186+C ignition point, constricted geometries (usually in the form of fractured crystal lattices with high surface area), high-frequency phononic pulses and monatomic hydrogen or similar atoms (even including atoms of the noble gases) appear that are producing usable “excess” energy through the compression of space-time in the time dimension, taking advantage of the same effect as is seen in the humble chemical catalyst that forms the bedrock of many chemical processes in use today.

    • Fortyniner

      Fascinating stuff – thanks. If this does turn out to be a correct interpretation of both LENR, catalysts and related phenomena, our current understanding of physics will soon begin to look like alchemy in an age of reason.

    • GreenWin

      Gordon, thanks very much for this. I have long wondered when we might here from the Casimir effect, given the nano scale the LENR succeeds at. It’s all quite elegant at these small scales and suggests manipulating space time to be a far better method of travel, than energetic propulsion. More fun anyway.

  • Fortyniner

    Not really apposite, but Peter Lindemann has published an interesting new article on what he calls ‘free energy’. Lots of interesting links. Apologies if already posted.

    “The world as it is currently ordered, cannot have free energy technology without being totally transformed by it into something else. This civilization has reached the pinnacle of its development, because it has birthed the seeds of its own transformation. “

  • JDM

    Cold fusion is not possible.
    Muon-catalyzed fusion, however is an acceptable technology available for public funding.

    • E_man

      Do You really know behaviour of hydrino at its H(1/137) state?