Kim-Hadjichristos Publish Paper on Defkalion Nickel-Hydrogen

A paper titled “Theoretical Analysis and Reaction Mechanisms for Experimental Results of Hydrogen Nickel Systems” written by University of Purdue professor of physics Yeong E. Kim, and John Hadjichristos, Chief Technology Officer at Defkalion Green Technologies is now online — the PDF can be read here.

The abstract of the article reads:

Experimental results for anomalous heat effect and super magnetic field observed for hydrogen-Nickel systems
are described. Theoretical analysis and reaction mechanisms are presented using theory of Boson cluster state nuclear fusion (BCSNF) based on the optical theorem formulation. Observed excess heat generation and anomalously large magnetic field are explained by theoretical descriptions based on nano-scale explosions (“Bosenova”) and proton supper currents.

The two authors gave a presentation on the subject at this year’s ICCF-18 conference held at the University of Missouri. The slide show from that presentation can be found here.

One of the interesting aspects of the paper is the report of their measurement of producing 1.6 tesla fields for 4 seconds from a distance of 18 cm after the spark plugs have fired — which is something that indicates that direct electrical production could be feasible with such a system. (See section 3.3 on page 3)

Defkalion has been quiet lately — we don’t have any indication yet that they are going to be listing their stock on the Toronto stock exchange as was suggested by CEO Alexandros Xanthoulis earlier this year. The information in this paper could be useful if they do start to make a move to interest the public.

  • Harry Skip Robinson

    Just having the infrastructure and assets in place is a big help so you can spend the time to be more innovative. That’s what we’re shooting for now. Some of the folks at Defkalion has spent the last 10 years getting to where there at with the innovation.

  • Harry Skip Robinson

    @AlainCo:disqus There appears to be many patents being filed by a host of people, including NASA on LENR. I’m being told DGT has a host of patents applications the want to file, but are holding off till the last minute before doing them. Many people use patents to attempt to figure out how it works, tweak it a bit and try to get around the patents. I agree that it is best to be first and best to the marketplace and hope that you can protect some of the IP.

    • AlainCo

      I know that for an innovative company that that

      they are copied despite a patent, just because they forgot to patent a detail… they patented too narrow.

      anyway they survive well because they adapt to each client, and because their detail choice is anyway the best one.
      a good patent don’t give you monopoly but help you to defend your permanent effort…
      like the rabbit of alice in wonderland, you have to innovate every day… to avoid bein late.

  • Harry Skip Robinson

    With Intellectual property so important, how do scientists like Kim, report their finding of a test like this without divulging potential patentable or proprietary elements of a technology?

    • AlainCo

      In fact in ICCF18 paper there is already many key data.
      I hope DGT have patents for what he said.
      probably also they have know how. patents are not bulletproofs.

      the good point is also that Kim is theorician, so there are less details to leak…

      some seems to say that DGT is giving more detail than others.

  • Brad Arnold

    I bet Defkalion will be making a public offering shortly after LENR is introduced to the market by Rossi’s corporate partner. It wouldn’t make sense now, since they wouldn’t get near the value it was worth due to the lack of consensus reality LENR currently has. As far as a LENR to electricity via a route other than the Carnot process – it sure looks feasible, but I suspect the current batch of LENR developers are too busy just trying to control the reaction.

  • Alan DeAngelis

    Perhaps electron holes (+) (positively charged fermions from
    the valance band of the nickel) react with hydrides H(-) to form neutral bosons,
    H(+-) (that are similar to ecitions
    ) . Perhaps these bosons can easily aggregate (a Bose-Einstein condensate) and
    undergo nuclear reactions with themselves or nickel nuclei.

  • Alan DeAngelis

    I think that Rossi claims in a patent that
    copper also works and the isotopes of copper are all odd (Cu-63 and Cu-65).
    Therefore, Cu-63 and Cu-65 are fermions not bosons

  • Sandy

    “the report of their measurement of producing 1.6 tesla fields for 4 seconds from a distance of 18 cm after the spark plugs have fired”

    I wonder if this magnetic field is caused by very small parts of the metal spark plug electrodes being sputtered into the hydrogen gas and then being moved around and around by the rapidly moving hydrogen gas. Have they tried spark plugs that have tungsten or platinum electrodes?

    • Shane D.


      Seems like small spark plugs capable of producing enough magnetic flux to pull metal objects from several feet away would be a revolution in itself.

      • AlainCo

        not so sure. It is a small active zone.
        my computation estimate that, if it is not error (I judge it is probably an artefact, but…) the field inside the chamber is about 8T, on a 8cm long zone. at 18cm from the center, thus a little more than twice the lenght of the active zone the field is indead more than 1Telsa

        however at 30 cm it is not very strong.

        most critics forget that it is not a MRI magnet designed to magnetize a thorax or a head…

        I have friend who played with the most powerful permanent magnet in 1988 (they planned to test how a student rocked can be influenced by earth field – that team launched a micro-satellite later).
        they were joking by having it in their pocket, and erasing the credit cards of people around…. nobody died!

        they explained me that when stuck together, 2 of those tiny magnet needed 80kg to be separated

        the most serious critics is not flying hammers, but the fact that 8Tesla is hard to explain… anyway it is possible because there are indication of superconductor phenomenon in LENR, and 8T is possible today with superconductor magnets…
        not very credible, since to do that you have well designed coils …

        this is why I both say
        – that it is probably consequence of artifacts caused by anyway huge electromagnetic field (which as abd ul rahman lomax repot, disrupted the phone network of DGT)
        – even true, it won’t make hammer fly in the room.

        • French123

          In the presentation made by Kim Yeong at ICCF18, it is indicated that a field of 0.6T is created by the triggering pulses, which rises to 1.6T during the reaction (slides 5 and 12)
          I understand that the 0.6T field is present before any LENR effect.
          The triggering pulses are obtained with a 22mA (peak) DC current (slide 25).
          I don’t see how such a small current can create a 0.6T field, 18cm away.
          May be micro tesla ?
          Any idea ?

          • AlainCo

            as you say it seems an artifact caused by EM.
            Or the superconducting reaction start before the spark… improbable, but we ignore many details on the technology and the theory.

            What is also possible is that the report is badly made…

            we need more data to have a serious support or critic.

  • Pekka Janhunen

    I’m disappointed by the paper. The observational part lacks detail so that the reader cannot verify the claims. The theory part is in principle interesting, but it looks like a repetition of earlier papers of Kim. The observational and theoretical parts seem detached with no common ground. The Levi et al. report wins this one 6-0.

  • Zeddicus Zul Zorander

    Just read the paper. That was easy… (not)

    People who still think this is all a scam should read this. I cannot imagine a more difficult scam doing it this this way using really indepth physics and mathematics.

    It’s also clear from the paper they have a lot of r&d left to do. Don’t count on them going to market soon.

    • GreenWin

      Suggestions of cold fusion “scams” come only from a handful of anonymous shills utilizing sock puppets (multi-personality software) to appear as a consensus of knowledgeable humans. They are the scam. DGT has made progress with their technology and should they partner with a far more established industrial company with good R&D resources – they could rival the other Ni/H1 ventures. From the STMicro patent app and the Mitsubishi/Toyota LENR replication – it looks like it will be one of these large concerns that enters commercial markets first.

      • AlainCo

        Not only, there is a really strong consensus (the 97% style) of uninformed parrots. most scientists because they are busy are parrots out of what they experience personally.

      • Zeddicus Zul Zorander

        I agree Greenwin; it’s only a handful of people causing disproportionate harm through deliberate misinforment of the masses.
        DGT has impressed me with their online demo seeing as they are further developed as I thought. I wouldn’t be surprised to see them first to commercial market if they partnered with Toyota using their enormous research facilities.

  • Sanjeev

    This is the one paper everyone was looking for after the DGT demo for ICCF18. Obviously, Kim did not participate in the experiment nor measured anything. I guess he is a theoretical physicist, so his part was to write the theoretical half of the paper.
    Its all qualitative, i.e. he tried to explain some of the observations using two effects. The theory does not predict much nor it derives the output power from the equations (So that we can compare)
    The only thing that I found it predicting is that the Ni-H fusion does not occur… now that’s a good one and can be used for the purpose of falsification. The spectrometer, if it finds Ni-H fusion products would falsify this theory.
    If adding D2 in the mix produces more heat and it will strengthen his theory.

    As the paper says, there are many unknowns and much more data is needed to carry out a quantitative analysis. Hope to see that in near future. But before that I’d rather see a product….

    • inquirer

      Is Kim sure? Has anyone verified his extrapolated hypothetical position with real lab results?

  • mainlybacon

    I think it is spelled “bossa nova”

    • Sanjeev

      Bosenova, a micro explosion of BEC

      • mainlybacon

        I didn’t know the Wikipedia was a reliable source of information, thanks.

        • Fortyniner

          ‘Bosenova’ is probably an intentional pun – it probably gave rise to much giggling when it was introduced.

          Wikipedia tends to be reasonably reliable when no PTB interests are threatened by the information.

          • mainlybacon

            I know it’s a pun, that’s why I made a joke about it in the first place.

    • Charles

      Really bacon: Bossa Nova is a dance and there was once a song named, Bossa Nova with a line of lyrics that said blame it on the bossa nova, the dance of love. You can google Bossa Nova Dance of Love lyrics. We better go with the author’s bosenova. The nova part implies star and fits better.

      • mainlybacon

        Originally a style of music, not a dance.

  • Enrique Ferreyra

    “Defkalion has recently acquired new two on-line real-time mass spectrometers [27] which will be integrated with Hyperion R-6 reactors. These integrated experimental systems are expected to generate the experimental data for the reaction products which are urgently needed for theoretical and scientific understanding of nuclear-reaction dynamics in this emerging field.”

    I hope i can a see a pict of these mass spectrometers, im interested…