The following is a guest post submitted by Italian engineer Dr. Antonio Ruggeri
Regarding the geological observations by Prof. Carpinteri, my interpretation of the phenomena, which he presents, is that we should not be talking about “fission” but about “transmutation” which is quite a different concept in regard to the nature of the atoms, since “fission” means “breakage” of the nucleus and formation of derivate atomic elements, each having its own character, whereas “transmutation” should be intended as “passage through gradual change”.
It affects the internal atomic structure causing change of atomic identity which eventually will lead to presence of an atom whose position is one level higher in the atomic table.
This is justified through insertion of neutrons whilst the atom moves from an isotope to the next until with absorption of a proton the atom changes its identity (as it happens in the case of the E-Cat in which there is transformation of Nickel into Copper).
In this case we could maybe talk of “fusion” obtained (where feasible) through an exothermic process, taking place whilst neutrons and protons enter into an atom.
My comment is that Prof. Carpinteri hasn’t developed a solid theory and having discovered these effects below Earth surface (and not far from it) wanted to claim priority before someone else could. (he indeed made a move similar to the one made by Fleishmann-Pons, and now he is causing a similar reaction of the Establishment).
I do not deny that the effects he presents are real since they depend from relativistic phenomena associated to the gravitational gradient of compression, but they are minimal when compared to what happens all the way to the centre of Earth.
The compression, of gravitational nature, over the surfaces of the atomic entities affects their internal structure leading to their capacity to absorb free neutrons and protons whilst exothermic activity takes place.
I am sustaining the hypothesis of presence of Ether/ESF in the Universe and the theory I developed tells me that, trough internal transformation-degradation, 40 W/m2 are coming out of Earth surface at any time.
This formula has been tested on the Sun for which internal transformation-degradation gives ~96500 kW/m2 of dissipation coming out of its surface, (a value that can be approximately obtained in various manners, starting from the measure of dissipation reaching Earth at the equator at midday).
If now we accept that 0.1 W/m2 is the output claimed by Prof. Carpinteri due to the phenomena happening below Earth but close to its surface it must be considered that the balance i.e.: 40-0.1= 39.9 W/m2 is coming out of the inner volume of Earth through similar phenomena which by necessity must be taking place.